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Protocorms of orchid (Dendrobium hybrid) were transformed by microprojectile bombardment with a helium-pressured PDS 1000 particle gun. Gold particles coated with plasmid DNA containing ß-glucuronidase (GUS) and hygromycin phosphotransferase (Hpt) marker genes were used. Potentially transformed tissues were identified by active growth on MS medium(More)
Excessive poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation plays a significant role in ischemic brain damage. Increasing evidence has supported the hypothesis that PARP-1 induces cell death by depleting intracellular NAD+. Based on our in vitro finding that NAD+ treatment can abolish PARP-1-mediated cell death, we hypothesized that NAD+ administration may(More)
NADH plays critical roles in mitochondrial functions and energy metabolism. There has been no study demonstrating that NADH can be transported across the plasma membranes of cells. In this study we tested our hypothesis that NADH can be transported across the plasma membranes of astrocytes by a P2X7 receptor (P2X7R)-mediated mechanism. We found that(More)
Cumulative evidence has indicated a critical role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation in ischemic brain damage. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is a key enzyme in poly(ADP-ribose) catabolism. Our previous studies showed that PARG inhibitors, gallotannin (GT) and nobotanin B, can profoundly decrease oxidative cell death in vitro. Here, we(More)
A rare subset of HIV-1-infected individuals is able to maintain plasma viral load (VL) at low levels without antiretroviral treatment. Identifying the mechanisms underlying this atypical response to infection may lead to therapeutic advances for treating HIV-1. Here, we developed a proteomic analysis to compare peripheral blood cell proteomes in 20(More)
DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation are important nuclear changes in apoptosis. In this study we determined whether DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation occur in astrocytes treated with 100-200 microM of the genotoxic agent M-nitroso-N-nitroguanidine (MNNG). Our study also investigated the roles of Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-dependent endonuclease (CME) in(More)
Oxidative stress plays critical roles in aging, cell death, and many diseases. Peroxynitrite is one of the major reactive oxygen species which mediates cell injury in a number of illnesses. It is of importance to identify the downstream events in peroxynitrite-initiated cell death cascade for preventing peroxynitrite toxicity. Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-endonucleases(More)
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