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The development of sensitive and versatile techniques to detect protein-protein interactions in vivo is important for understanding protein functions. The previously described techniques, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence complementation, which are used widely for protein-protein interaction studies in plants, require(More)
Pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) trigger plant immunity that forms the first line inducible defenses in plants. The regulatory mechanism of MAMP-triggered immunity, however, is poorly understood. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (EIL1),(More)
Surveillance of the extracellular environment by immune receptors is of central importance to eukaryotic survival. The rice receptor kinase XA21, which confers robust resistance to most strains of the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is representative of a large class of cell surface immune receptors in plants and animals. We(More)
This paper studies the system uplink outage probability in distributed antenna systems (DAS). Firstly, owing to the complexity of actual wireless environments, this paper establishes a composite channel model which takes path loss, lognormal shadowing and Rayleigh fading into account. Then, the probability density function (PDF) of the output(More)
Two-component systems (TCS) consisting of histidine kinases (HK) and response regulators (RR) play essential roles in bacteria to sense environmental signals and regulate cell functions. One type of RR is involved in metabolism of cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), a ubiquitous bacterial second messenger. Although genomic studies predicted a large number of(More)
OBJECTIVE To better elucidate the functions of RpfFxoo, RpfCxoo and RpfGxoo, 3 proteins of diffusible signal factor (DSF)-dependent cell-cell signaling system in regulation of virulence expression of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). METHOD Deltarpfxoo, the gene deletion mutants were generated from PXO99(A), the wild-type strain of Xoo via(More)
This paper investigates the channel capacity of the distributed antenna system (DAS) over shadowed fading channels. To facilitate the analysis, the distribution of the received signal to noise ratio (SNR) is approximated firstly by a lognormal distribution. Then, by using Gauss-Hermite integration, an approximate analytical expression of the channel(More)
This paper proposes a channel and queue aware fair (CQAF) packet scheduling scheme for the downlink packet transmission in multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. By making use of the information on the channel conditions and the queue lengths, the proposed CQAF packet scheduling scheme efficiently allocates the subcarriers,(More)
The targeting of bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SSs), which are critical virulence factors in most Gram-negative pathogens, is regarded as an alternative strategy for the development of novel anti-microbial drugs. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) are two of the most important bacterial pathogens on rice, which(More)