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A fundamental feature of the mammalian neocortex is its columnar organization. In the visual cortex, functional columns consisting of neurons with similar orientation preferences have been characterized extensively, but how these columns are constructed during development remains unclear. The radial unit hypothesis posits that the ontogenetic columns formed(More)
Neuronal migration and growth-cone extension are both guided by extracellular factors in the developing brain, but whether these two forms of guidance are mechanistically linked is unclear. Application of a Slit-2 gradient in front of the leading process of cultured cerebellar granule cells led to the collapse of the growth cone and the reversal of neuronal(More)
Determining the degree of synapse formation and elimination is essential for understanding the structural basis of brain plasticity and pathology. We show that in vivo imaging of dendritic spine dynamics through an open-skull glass window, but not a thinned-skull window, is associated with high spine turnover and substantial glial activation during the(More)
Migration of neuronal precursor cells in the developing brain is guided by extracellular cues, but intracellular signaling processes underlying the guidance of neuronal migration are largely unknown. By examining the migration of cerebellar granule neurons along the surface of cocultured astroglial cells, we found that an extracellular gradient of Slit2, a(More)
The hippocampus, as part of the cerebral cortex, is essential for memory formation and spatial navigation. Although it has been extensively studied, especially as a model system for neurophysiology, the cellular processes involved in constructing and organizing the hippocampus remain largely unclear. Here, we show that clonally related excitatory neurons in(More)
One hypothesis for the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is that the formation of proteinaceous inclusion, which is mainly composed of alpha-synuclein, may contribute to the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons. To further explore the role of alpha-synuclein in neurodegeneration of PD, we examined the possible effects of aggregated alpha-synuclein on(More)
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