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However, for a task with very high dimensional data such as images, the traditional LDA algorithm encounters several difficulties. Consider face recognition for example. A low-definition face image of size 64 by 64 implies a feature space of 64 × 64 = 4096 dimensions, and therefore scatter matrices of size 4096 × 4096 = 16M. First, it is computationally(More)
Immune cells in the tumour microenvironment not only fail to mount an effective anti-tumour immune response, but also interact intimately with the transformed cells to promote oncogenesis actively. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is a point of convergence for numerous oncogenic signalling pathways, is constitutively(More)
Non-receptor and receptor tyrosine kinases, such as Src and EGF receptor (EGFR), are major inducers of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the most potent mediators of angiogenesis. While tyrosine kinases signal through multiple pathways, signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a point of convergence for many of these(More)
Although tumor progression involves processes such as tissue invasion that can activate inflammatory responses, the immune system largely ignores or tolerates disseminated cancers. The mechanisms that block initiation of immune responses during cancer development are poorly understood. We report here that constitutive activation of Stat-3, a common(More)
The immune system can act as an extrinsic suppressor of tumors. Therefore, tumor progression depends in part on mechanisms that downmodulate intrinsic immune surveillance. Identifying these inhibitory pathways may provide promising targets to enhance antitumor immunity. Here, we show that Stat3 is constitutively activated in diverse tumor-infiltrating(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate panitumumab plus modified fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) or bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6 in patients with previously untreated wild-type (WT) KRAS exon 2 (codons 12 and 13) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A prespecified secondary objective was to assess treatment effects in an extended RAS analysis that included(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upregulation is induced by many receptor and intracellular oncogenic proteins commonly activated in cancer, rendering molecular targeting of VEGF expression a complex challenge. While VEGF inducers abound, only two major transcription activators have been identified for its promoter: hypoxia inducible factor-1(More)
Although the Th17 subset and its signature cytokine, interleukin (IL)-17A (IL-17), are implicated in certain autoimmune diseases, their role in cancer remains to be further explored. IL-17 has been shown to be elevated in several types of cancer, but how it might contribute to tumor growth is still unclear. We show that growth of B16 melanoma and MB49(More)