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Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling facilitates metastasis in advanced malignancy. While a number of protein-encoding genes are known to be involved in this process, information on the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in TGF-beta-induced cell migration and invasion is still limited. By hybridizing a 515-miRNA oligonucleotide-based microarray(More)
Glucose and other secretagogues are thought to activate a variety of protein kinases. This study was designed to unravel the sites of action of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) in modulating insulin secretion. By using high time resolution measurements of membrane capacitance and flash photolysis of caged Ca(2+), we characterize three(More)
Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern, which usually results in a visual aftereffect. However, the functional role of visual adaptation is still equivocal and its relation to visual aftereffect is largely unknown, especially for high-level visual adaptation. In this study, we took advantage(More)
Many synapses show short-term depression, but it is not well understood what functional purpose depression serves and whether its effects are beneficial or detrimental to information processing. We study this issue at the synapse made by auditory-nerve (AN) fibers onto bushy cells (BCs) of the cochlear nucleus, called the "endbulb of Held." AN fibers carry(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNA) represent a novel class of genes that function as negative regulators of gene expression. Recently, miRNAs have been implicated in several cancers. However, aberrant miRNA expression and its clinicopathologic significance in human ovarian cancer have not been well documented. Here, we show that several miRNAs are altered in human ovarian(More)
Establishing in vivo microdialysis methods for the quantitative determination of dopamine concentrations in the extracellular space of the brain is an important yet challenging objective. The source of the challenge is the difficulty in directly measuring the microdialysis recovery of dopamine during an in vivo experiment. The recovery value is needed for(More)
Several mechanisms can underlie short-term synaptic depression, including vesicle depletion, receptor desensitization, and changes in presynaptic release probability. To determine which mechanisms affect depression under physiological conditions, we studied the synapse formed by auditory nerve fibers onto bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus(More)
BACKGROUND The definition of diastolic heart failure (DHF) relies on the use of sensitive tools to exclude the presence of systolic dysfunction. The use of ejection fraction (EF) of 50% as the cutoff point may not be adequate to address such a task. We believe that systolic dysfunction is common in DHF. METHODS AND RESULTS Echocardiography with tissue(More)
STAT3-STAT3 dimerization, which involves reciprocal binding of the STAT3-SH2 domain to phosphorylated tyrosine-705 (Y-705), is required for STAT3 nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and transcriptional regulation of downstream target genes. Here, we describe a small molecule S3I-1757 capable of disrupting STAT3-STAT3 dimerization, activation, and malignant(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate refractive error and its demographic associations in an urban and rural population in northern China. DESIGN Epidemiological study. PARTICIPANTS The Beijing Eye Study is a population-based cohort study in northern China including 4439 subjects. Excluding pseudophakic and aphakic patients, the present study involved 4319 subjects. It(More)