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The Drosophila compound eye is formed by selective recruitment of undifferentiated cells into clusters called ommatidia during late larval and early pupal development. Ommatidia at the edge of the eye, which often lack the full complement of photoreceptors and support cells, undergo apoptosis during mid-pupation. We have found that this cell death is(More)
This study evaluated the impact of professional training on serum oxidant and antioxidant status in adolescent endurance athletes and compared it with that of untrained individuals. Firstly, serum thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARSs), xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total(More)
Diabetes is associated with β cell failure. But it remains unclear whether the latter results from reduced β cell number or function. FoxO1 integrates β cell proliferation with adaptive β cell function. We interrogated the contribution of these two processes to β cell dysfunction, using mice lacking FoxO1 in β cells. FoxO1 ablation caused hyperglycemia with(More)
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), primarily acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are metabolites formed by gut microbiota from complex dietary carbohydrates. Butyrate and acetate were reported to protect against diet-induced obesity without causing hypophagia, while propionate was shown to reduce food intake. However, the underlying mechanisms for these(More)
OBJECTIVE The sites of insulin action in the central nervous system that regulate glucose metabolism and energy expenditure are incompletely characterized. We have shown that mice with hypothalamic deficiency (L1) of insulin receptors (InsRs) fail to regulate hepatic glucose production (HGP) in response to insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To(More)
OBJECTIVE Impaired insulin-dependent glucose disposal in muscle and fat is a harbinger of type 2 diabetes, but murine models of selective insulin resistance at these two sites are conspicuous by their failure to cause hyperglycemia. A defining feature of muscle and fat vis-à-vis insulin signaling is that they both express the insulin-sensitive glucose(More)
INTRODUCTION Obesity confers a survival advantage in the critically ill and in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We explored whether an obesogenic high fat diet could confer protection against post cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) acute kidney injury (AKI) in a swine model. METHODS In this study, 28 anaesthetised adult female Landrace White swine (55 to 70(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the effects of the ultrastructural features of sprouted mossy fiber synapses in the mechanism of temporal lobe epilepsy. To explore the correlation between axon guidance molecule-netrin-1 gene expression and mossy fiber synaptic reorganization. METHODS Sixty-one SD rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of lithium chloride and(More)
Juglanthraquinone C (1,5-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-3-carboxylic acid, JC), a naturally occurring anthraquinone isolated from the stem bark of Juglans mandshurica, shows strong cytotoxicity in various human cancer cells in vitro. Here, we first performed a structure–activity relationship study of six anthraquinone compounds (JC, rhein, emodin,(More)