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Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more(More)
Enterococcus faecalis has emerged as a major hospital pathogen. To explore its diversity, we sequenced E. faecalis strain OG1RF, which is commonly used for molecular manipulation and virulence studies. The 2,739,625 base pair chromosome of OG1RF was found to contain approximately 232 kilobases unique to this strain compared to V583, the only publicly(More)
BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were challenged by aerosol or intradermally with low doses ( approximately 10-20 colony forming units) of virulent type A and type B strains of the facultative intracellular pathogen, Francisella tularensis, and the course of infection was monitored. Both mouse strains were equally susceptible to infection, but type A strains reached(More)
The human X and Y chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes during the past 200-300 million years. The human MSY (male-specific region of Y chromosome) retains only three percent of the ancestral autosomes' genes owing to genetic decay. This evolutionary decay was driven by a series of five 'stratification' events. Each event suppressed X-Y(More)
Understanding the pathogenesis of infectious diseases requires comprehensive knowledge of the proteins expressed by the pathogen during in vivo growth in the host. Proteomics provides the tools for such analyses but the protocols required to purify sufficient quantities of the pathogen from the host organism are currently lacking. Here, we present a rapid(More)
Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis is one of the most virulent of bacterial pathogens for humans. Protective immunity against the pathogen can be induced in humans and some, but not all, mouse strains by vaccination with live, but not killed, vaccines. In mice, this protection is mediated predominantly by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. This is thought to(More)
Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A F. tularensis) is considered to be one of the most virulent of all bacterial pathogens. Mice are extremely susceptible to infection with this subspecies (LD100 via various inoculation routes is <10 cfu). However, it has not been established whether overt virulence differences exist amongst type A strains(More)
CONTEXT MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate the gene expressions at the posttranscriptional level, subsequently control crucial physiological processes. Recent evidence demonstrates that some miRNAs have the functions similar to oncogene or tumor suppressors, it may play important roles in tumorigenesis. MiRNA(More)
There were few reports on the antioxidant response of aquatic organisms exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). This research explored the hepatic antioxidant responses of fish to long-term exposure of 2,4-DCP for the first time. Freshwater fish Carassius auratus were chosen as experimental animals. The fish were exposed to six different concentrations of(More)
BACKGROUND Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent human pathogen. The most virulent strains belong to subspecies tularensis and these strains cause a sometimes fatal disease. Despite an intense recent research effort, there is very limited information available that explains the unique features of subspecies tularensis strains that distinguish them(More)