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We transplanted kidneys from alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) pigs into six baboons using two different immunosuppressive regimens, but most of the baboons died from severe acute humoral xenograft rejection. Circulating induced antibodies to non-Gal antigens were markedly elevated at rejection, which mediated strong complement-dependent(More)
Over 1000 different mutants of the tumor suppressor protein p53 with one amino acid change in the core domain have been reported in human cancers. In mouse knock-in models, two frequent mutants displayed loss of wild-type (wt) p53 function, inhibition of wt p53 and wt p53-independent gain of function. The remaining mutants have been systematically(More)
The tumor suppressor protein p53, once activated, can cause either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis through transactivation of target genes with p53 DNA binding sites (DBS). To investigate the role of p53 DBS in the regulation of this profound, yet poorly understood decision of life versus death, we systematically studied all known and potential p53 DBS. We(More)
The transcription factor and tumor suppressor protein p53 is frequently inactivated in human cancers. In many cases, p53 gene mutations result in high levels of inactive, full-length p53 protein with one amino acid change in the core domain that recognizes p53 DNA-binding sites. The ability to endow function to mutated p53 proteins would dramatically(More)
A novel water-soluble polysaccharide pMTPS-3, obtained from Melia toosendan Sieb. Et Zucc fruit by hot-water extraction and ethanol precipitation, was fractionated by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. Its primary structural features and molecular weight were characterized by Fourier infrared spectrometry(More)
HS002-II, a novel protein-bound polysaccharide with 44kDa molecular weight, was fractionated from submerged cultures of Hirsutella sinensis Liu, Guo, Yu & Zeng by DEAE-Sepharose and Sephacryl S200 chromatography. Based on the results of infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, methylation, amino acid analysis, NMR spectroscopy and(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease with complicated genetic inheritance. Programmed death 1 (PD-1), a negative T cell regulator to maintain peripheral tolerance, induces negative signals to T cells during interaction with its ligands and is therefore a candidate gene in the development of SLE. In order to examine whether(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) is a process through which double-stranded RNA induces the activation of cellular pathways, leading to potent and selective silencing of genes with homology to the double strand. Much excitement surrounding small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated therapeutics arises from the fact that this approach overcomes many of the shortcomings(More)
BACKGROUND In previous studies we have demonstrated that Serp-1, a myxoma virus encoded serine protease inhibitor, dramatically inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in vascular injury and aortic transplant models. Here we examined the effect of peritransplant Serp-1 administration on chronic renal allograft rejection. METHODS Rat renal transplants were(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) reside at the center of the immunological universe, possessing the ability both to stimulate and inhibit various types of responses. Tolerogenic/regulatory DC with therapeutic properties can be generated through various means of manipulations in vitro and in vivo. Here we describe several attractive strategies for manipulation of DC(More)