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In animal cells, the primary cilium transduces extracellular signals through signaling receptors localized in the ciliary membrane, but how these ciliary membrane proteins are retained in the cilium is unknown. We found that ciliary membrane proteins were highly mobile, but their diffusion was impeded at the base of the cilium by a diffusion barrier. Septin(More)
Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables the discrimination of white matter pathways before myelination is evident histologically or on conventional MRI. In this investigation, 14 premature neonates with no evidence of white matter abnormalities by conventional MRI were studied with DTI. A custom MR-compatible incubator with a novel high(More)
The BBSome is a complex of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) proteins that shares common structural elements with COPI, COPII, and clathrin coats. Here, we show that the BBSome constitutes a coat complex that sorts membrane proteins to primary cilia. The BBSome is the major effector of the Arf-like GTPase Arl6/BBS3, and the BBSome and GTP-bound Arl6 colocalize at(More)
The primary cilium organizes numerous signal transduction cascades, and an understanding of signaling receptor trafficking to cilia is now emerging. A defining feature of cilia is the periciliary diffusion barrier that separates the ciliary and plasma membranes. Although lateral transport through this barrier may take place, polarized exocytosis to the base(More)
This study assessed microstructural development in four regions of the human cerebral cortex during preterm maturation using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), compared to the macrostructural development of cortical gyration evaluated using three-dimensional volumetric T1-weighted MR imaging. Thirty-seven premature infants of estimated gestational age (EGA)(More)
Case reports and small retrospective studies suggest that atypical antipsychotic agents may be associated with new-onset Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA); however, these reports often provide limited or no information on demographic variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, relationship to weight gain, and time course. We(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in China has expanded rapidly in recent years, but little is known about the prevalence and features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) in this part of the world. We administered a comprehensive Western neuropsychological (NP) test battery to 203 HIV+ and 198 HIV- former plasma donors in the(More)
How body size is determined is a long-standing question in biology, yet its regulatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we find that a conserved microRNA miR-8 and its target, USH, regulate body size in Drosophila. miR-8 null flies are smaller in size and defective in insulin signaling in fat body that is the fly counterpart of liver and adipose(More)
Atypical antipsychotics (AAP) have been widely used for the management of patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders since they were introduced during the past decade. AAP, as a class, have demonstrated a significant advantage over conventional antipsychotics in clinical efficacy and lower incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and(More)
BACKGROUND Thalamic dysfunction has been found in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), suggesting that the thalamus may be implicated in the etiology of PTSD. However, no studies have explored the functional connectivity between the thalamus and other brain regions during resting-state. The objective of the present study was to investigate(More)