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—We investigate the polarization evolution for both signal and noise in two 107-km recirculating loops with polarization dependent loss per round-trip of 0.35 dB and less than 0.1 dB, respectively. When the system is optimized, in the first case, both signal and noise are polarized, while in the second case, the signal tends to depolarize due to the noise.(More)
—The authors have derived a receiver model that provides an explicit relationship between the factor and the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) in optical fiber communication systems for arbitrary pulse shapes, realistic receiver filters, and arbitrarily polarized noise. It is shown how the system performance depends on both the degree of polarization of(More)
We present a field-trial implementation of the soft-failure approach to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) impairment mitigation, in which information about the PMD of the installed link is utilized by our modified control plane software to make decisions on data routing over available links. This allows us to maintain loss-free end-to-end data service,(More)
—We systematically investigate the combined effect on the system performance in an optical fiber communication system of a signal that is depolarized due to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and noise that is partially polarized due to polarization-dependent loss. We derive a formula for the variance of the electric current of the signal due to the(More)
OBJECTIVE beta-carotene (beta-C) is a major and safe vitamin A source for a vast population in China. But there is little understanding on beta-C-vitamin A equivalence in Chinese population. This study was designed to evaluate intestinal and whole-body conversion of beta-C to vitamin A in some Chinese adults by using a stable isotope dilution technique. (More)
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