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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) both are secreted uniquely by hepatocytes and circulate in blood in a complex. Here, we isolated from human hepatoma cells the membrane vesicles in which HCV replicates. These vesicles, which contain the HCV replication complex, are highly enriched in proteins required for(More)
We recently reported that Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication requires one or more geranylgeranylated host proteins. Using a combination of [(3)H]mevalonate labeling, coimmunoprecipitation, and bioinformatic search, we identified a geranylgeranylated host protein required for HCV RNA replication. This protein, FBL2, contains an F box domain and a CAAX(More)
DNA methylation and demethylation have been proposed to play an important role in somatic cell reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate that the DNA hydroxylase Tet1 facilitates pluripotent stem cell induction by promoting Oct4 demethylation and reactivation. Moreover, Tet1 (T) can replace Oct4 and initiate somatic cell reprogramming in conjunction with Sox2(More)
DNA hydroxymethylation and its mediated DNA demethylation are critical for multiple cellular processes, for example, nuclear reprogramming, embryonic development, and many diseases. Here, we demonstrate that a vital nutrient ascorbic acid (AA), or vitamin C (Vc), can directly enhance the catalytic activity of Tet dioxygenases for the oxidation of(More)
The TrkH/TrkG/KtrB proteins mediate K(+) uptake in bacteria and probably evolved from simple K(+) channels by multiple gene duplications or fusions. Here we present the crystal structure of a TrkH from Vibrio parahaemolyticus. TrkH is a homodimer, and each protomer contains an ion permeation pathway. A selectivity filter, similar in architecture to those of(More)
TrkH belongs to a superfamily of K(+) transport proteins required for growth of bacteria in low external K(+) concentrations. The crystal structure of TrkH from Vibrio parahaemolyticus showed that TrkH resembles a K(+) channel and may have a gating mechanism substantially different from K(+) channels. TrkH assembles with TrkA, a cytosolic protein comprising(More)
Recent work has identified a new subset of CD4(+) T cells named as Tfh cells that are localized in germinal centers and critical in germinal center formation. Tfh cell differentiation is regulated by IL-6 and IL-21, possibly via STAT3 factor, and B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) is specifically expressed in Tfh cells and required for their lineage specification. In(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease. HCV associates with host apolipoproteins and enters hepatocytes through complex processes involving some combination of CD81, claudin-1, occludin, and scavenger receptor BI. Here we show that infectious HCV resembles very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and that entry involves co-receptor(More)
DNA N(6)-methyladenine (6mA) modification is commonly found in microbial genomes and plays important functions in regulating numerous biological processes in bacteria. However, whether 6mA occurs and what its potential roles are in higher-eukaryote cells remain unknown. Here, we show that 6mA is present in Drosophila genome and that the 6mA modification is(More)
Astrocytes play an important role in protecting neurons during ischemia and reperfusion in the central nervous system. Although many studies have shown that oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) can induce astrocyte apoptosis, the role of PERK/eIF2 alpha/ATF4 integrated stress response (ISR) in astrocyte apoptosis mediated by oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation(More)