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The emerging literature implicates a role for glia/cytokines in persistent pain. However, the mechanisms by which these non-neural elements contribute to CNS activity-dependent plasticity and pain are unclear. Using a trigeminal model of inflammatory hyperalgesia, here we provide evidence that demonstrates a mechanism by which glia interact with neurons,(More)
The genetic diversity of Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, is extremely limited because of its recent origin coupled with a slow clock rate. Here we identified 2,326 SNPs from 133 genomes of Y. pestis strains that were isolated in China and elsewhere. These SNPs define the genealogy of Y. pestis since its most recent common ancestor. All but(More)
Improving authentication delay is a key issue for achieving seamless handovers across networks and domains. This paper presents an overview of fast authentication methods when roaming within or across IEEE 802.11 Wireless-LANs. Besides this overview, the paper analyses the applicability of IEEE 802.11f and Seamoby solutions to enable fast authentication for(More)
Recent studies have shown that cognitive and memory decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is coupled with losses of small-world attributes. However, few studies have investigated the characteristics of the whole brain networks in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we(More)
Opioid antinociception appears to be mediated at least in part by a pathway that projects from the periaqueductal gray (PAG) to the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), but the relationship between opioid receptors and PAG-RVM projection neurons is unclear. Previous electrophysiological studies have suggested that opioids act directly on some PAG neurons(More)
Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that the cognitive and memory decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is coupled with abnormal functions of focal brain regions and disrupted functional connectivity between distinct brain regions, as well as losses in small-world attributes. However, the causal interactions among the spatially isolated, but(More)
The mechanism of mechanical hyperalgesia in inflammation might involve a 'mechanochemical' process whereby stretch evokes the release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) from the damaged tissue that then excites nearby primary sensory nerve terminals. In the present study, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (pERK) immunoreactivity(More)
PURPOSE To investigate acupuncture specificity by exploring causal relationships of brain networks following acupuncture at GB40 (Qiuxu), with the acupoint KI3 (Taixi) as a control (belonging to the same nerve segment but different meridians). MATERIALS AND METHODS Needling at acupoints GB40 and KI3 was performed in 12 subjects separately. The specific(More)