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Endotoxin, a constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release large quantities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), which can precipitate tissue injury and lethal shock (endotoxemia). Antagonists of TNF and IL-1 have shown limited efficacy in clinical trials, possibly because these cytokines are early mediators in(More)
Vertebrates achieve internal homeostasis during infection or injury by balancing the activities of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal. The central nervous system regulates systemic inflammatory responses(More)
Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated in various degenerative diseases in aging. In an attempt to quantify OS in a cell model, we examined OS induced by incubating for 30 min with various free radical generators in PC12 cells by using the dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assay, modified for use by a fluorescent microplate reader. The nonfluorescent fluorescin(More)
math5 is a murine orthologue of atonal, a bHLH proneural gene essential for the formation of photoreceptors and chordotonal organs in Drosophila. The expression of math5 coincides with the onset of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) differentiation. Targeted deletion of math5 blocks the initial differentiation of 80% of RGCs and results in an increase in(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor genes encode low molecular weight proteins which have important functions in cell cycle regulation, development and perhaps also in tumorigenesis. The first plant CDK inhibitor gene ICK1 was recently identified from Arabidopsis thaliana. Although the C-terminal domain of ICK1 contained an important consensus sequence(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS Periconceptional administration of folic acid can reduce a woman's risk of having a fetus or infant with a neural-tube defect. As part of a public health campaign conducted from 1993 to 1995 in an area of China with high rates of neural-tube defects (the northern region) and one with low rates (the southern region), we evaluated the(More)
In response to DNA damage, cells activate checkpoint pathways that prevent cell cycle progression. In fission yeast and mammals, mitotic arrest in response to DNA damage requires inhibitory Cdk phosphorylation regulated by Chk1. This study indicates that Chk1 is required for function of the DNA damage checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae but acts through(More)
We have isolated a cDNA from rat placenta which, when expressed heterologously, mediates the transport of a wide spectrum of organic cations. The cDNA codes for a protein of 551 amino acids containing 12 putative transmembrane domains. Northern blot analysis indicates that this transporter is expressed most abundantly in the placenta and moderately in the(More)
The emerging literature implicates a role for glia/cytokines in persistent pain. However, the mechanisms by which these non-neural elements contribute to CNS activity-dependent plasticity and pain are unclear. Using a trigeminal model of inflammatory hyperalgesia, here we provide evidence that demonstrates a mechanism by which glia interact with neurons,(More)
A rapid and simple procedure is presented to obtain nearly pure populations of human neuron-like cells from the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. Sequential exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to retinoic acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in serum-free medium yields homogeneous populations of cells with neuronal morphology, avoiding the presence of other(More)