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In today's global free market, third-party logistics providers (3PLs) are becoming increasingly important. This paper studies a problem faced by a 3PL operating a warehouse in Shanghai, China, under contract with a major manufacturer of children's clothing based in the United States. At the warehouse, the 3PL receives textile parcel shipments from the(More)
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a heuristic optimization technique based on swarm intelligence that is inspired by the behavior of bird flocking. The canonical PSO has the disadvantage of premature convergence. Several improved PSO versions do well in keeping the diversity of the particles during the searching process, but at the expense of rapid(More)
This paper investigates the manpower allocation problem with time windows and job-teaming constraints (MAPTWTC), a practical scheduling and routing problem that tries to synchronize workers' schedules to complete all tasks. We first provide an integer programming model for the problem and discuss its properties. Next, we show that tree data structure can be(More)
The feasible solutions of the traveling salesman problem with pickup and delivery (TSPPD) are represented by vertex lists in existing literature. However, when the TSPPD requires that the loading and unloading operations must be performed in a last-in-first-out (LIFO) manner, we show that its feasible solutions can be represented by trees. Consequently, we(More)