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With the development of industries, we have realized the third industrial revolution. Following the development of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), industrial wireless network and some other enabling technologies, the fourth industrial revolution is being gradually rolled out. This paper presents an overview of the background, concept, basic methods, major(More)
Regenerative braking system is widely used on subway trains, which will transmit kinetic energy of the trains to electricity. When the braking speed of a train is comparatively high, regenerative braking is prior to the mechanical braking. However, if the regenerative braking energy can not be absorbed by other trains in the same power supply section, the(More)
The development of industrialization and information communication technology (ICT) has deeply changed our way of life. In particular, with the emerging theory of ‘‘Industry 4.0”, the integration of cloud technologies and industrial cyber-physical systems (ICPS) becomes increasingly important, as this will greatly improve the manufacturing chain and(More)
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by the FMD virus (FMDV). Vaccination represents one approach for limiting the effects of FMD. The level of protection in vaccinated animals after challenge with foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is closely related to the antibody titer, which can be classified into(More)
The efficacy of an inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine is mainly dependent on the integrity of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles. At present, the standard method to quantify the active component, the 146S antigen, of FMD vaccines is sucrose density gradient (SDG) analysis. However, this method is highly operator dependent and(More)
This paper investigates the automatic control problem of high speed train systems under uncertain resistance conditions such as time-varying resistance, unknown aerodynamic drag and wind gust. A sliding mode observer (SMO) based control method is designed for tracking given position-velocity profile precisely. The control method is disturbance rejective(More)