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Much of software developers' time is spent understanding unfamiliar code. To better understand how developers gain this understanding and how software development environments might be involved, a study was performed in which developers were given an unfamiliar program and asked to work on two debugging tasks and three enhancement tasks for 70 minutes. The(More)
As programming skills increase in demand and utility, the learnability of end-user programming systems is of utmost importance. However, research on learning barriers in programming systems has primarily focused on languages, overlooking potential barriers in the environment and accompanying libraries. To address this, a study of beginning programmers(More)
Guessability is essential for symbolic input, in which users enter gestures or keywords to indicate characters or commands, or rely on labels or icons to access features. We present a unified approach to both maximizing and evaluating the guessability of symbolic input. This approach can be used by anyone wishing to design a symbol set with high(More)
Recently, several innovative tools have found their way into mainstream use in modern development environments. However, most of these tools have focused on creating and modifying code, despite evidence that most of programmers' time is spent understanding code as part of maintenance tasks. If new tools were designed to directly support these maintenance(More)
The computer and communication systems that office workers currently use tend to interrupt at inappropriate times or unduly demand attention because they have no way to determine when an interruption is appropriate. Sensor?based statistical models of human interruptibility offer a potential solution to this problem. Prior work to examine such models has(More)
MOTIVATION Mobile phones and game consoles are two domains in which a good joystick text entry method would be valuable, since these devices lack conventional keyboards. Joysticks have considerable tenure as input devices, but few text entry methods have been developed for them. Common joystick text entry methods, like date stamp and selection keyboard, are(More)
Three studies of different mobile-device hand postures are presented. The first study measures the performance of postures in Fitts’ law tasks using one and two hands, thumbs and index fingers, horizontal and vertical movements, and frontand back-of-device interaction. Results indicate that the index finger performs well on both the front and the back of(More)
A detailed study of Java programmers' text editing found that the full flexibility of unstructured text was not utilized for the vast majority of programmers' character-level edits. Rather, programmers used a small set of editing patterns to achieve their modifications, which accounted for all of the edits observed in the study. About two-thirds of the(More)
A joystick text entry method for game controllers and mobile phones would be valuable, since these devices often have joysticks but no conventional keyboards. But prevalent joystick text entry methods are slow because they are selection-based. EdgeWrite, a new joystick text entry method, is not based on selection but on gestures from a unistroke alphabet.(More)