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In three experiments, native Chinese speakers were asked to use their native and non-native languages to read and translate Chinese words and to name pictures. In Experiment 1, four groups of subjects with various degrees of proficiency in their second language, English, participated. In Experiments 2 and 3, subjects were first asked to learn a list of(More)
In two primed-naming experiments involving Chinese character recognition, one with native Mandarin-speaking subjects and another with native Cantonese-speaking subjects, we varied both the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and the prime-target similarity along various lexical dimensions. Across both experiments, the results were as follows: (1) Relatively(More)
Phonological awareness, the ability to analyze spoken language into small sound units, has been shown to be affected by the individual's early orthographic experience (alphabetic vs. non-alphabetic). Past studies, however, have not differentiated the effect of script alphabeticity from that of spoken language experience, which covaries strongly with the(More)
According to the asymmetry model of bilingual representation (Kroll & Stewart, 1994), the first language (L1) lexicon is closely tied to an underlying conceptual memory, whereas second language (L2) items are mostly associated with their L1 equivalents. An outcome of this architecture is that L1-to-L2, or forward, translation must be mediated by the(More)
Three reading time experiments were conducted in order to examine the relative contributions of order of antecedents and semantic context to the resolution of temporarily ambiguous Chinese pronouns. These pronouns were ambiguous because each of them was preceded by two antecedents, both of which were likely candidates for coreference. The identity of the(More)
The asymmetry model of bilingual memory proposed by Kroll and Stewart assumes that translation from a first language (L1) into a second language (L2), or forward translation, is mediated by an underlying conceptual memory, whereas L2-to-L1, or backward, translation is lexical and direct. Lexical links from L2 to L1 are hypothesized to be stronger than those(More)
BACKGROUND Recurrent vulvar cancer involving the femoral artery after groin radiation is usually considered inoperable. A patient with such recurrent vulvar cancer successfully treated by femoral vascular graft and rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction with limb salvage is described. CASE A 51-year-old woman had recurrent vulvar cancer(More)