Hstau Y. Liao

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Eukaryotic translation initiation begins with assembly of a 43S preinitiation complex. First, methionylated initiator methionine transfer RNA (Met-tRNAi(Met)), eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2, and guanosine triphosphate form a ternary complex (TC). The TC, eIF3, eIF1, and eIF1A cooperatively bind to the 40S subunit, yielding the 43S preinitiation(More)
Eukaryotic translation termination results from the complex functional interplay between two eukaryotic release factors, eRF1 and eRF3, and the ribosome, in which GTP hydrolysis by eRF3 couples codon recognition with peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis by eRF1. Here, using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and flexible fitting, we determined the structure of(More)
Phosphorylation has been implicated in the regulation of microtubule (MT) stability and function by controlling the interactions between MTs and MT-associated proteins. We found previously that protein phosphatase inhibitors selectively break down stable MTs, suggesting that protein phosphatases may be involved in regulating MT stability. To identify the(More)
In limited data tomography, with applications such as electron microscopy and medical imaging, the scanning views are within an angular range that is often both limited and sparsely sampled. In these situations, standard algorithms produce reconstructions with notorious artifacts. We show in this paper that a sparsity image representation principle, based(More)
In this paper, we review current practices for establishing the resolution in single-particle reconstructions. The classical Raleigh criterion for the resolution is not applicable in this case, and the resolution is commonly defined by a consistency test, whereby the data set is randomly split in half and the two resulting reconstructions are then compared.(More)
In limited angle tomography, with applications such as electron microscopy, medical imaging, and industrial testing, the object of interest is scanned over a limited angular range, which is less than the full 180deg mathematically required for density reconstruction. The use of standard full-range reconstruction algorithms produces results with notorious(More)
Hstau Y. Liao City University of New York Graduate Center Computer Science Department Abstract. Recently, an algebraic reconstruction method has been presented for generation of three-dimensional 3D maps of the grain boundaries within polycrystals. The grains are mapped layer by layer in a nondestructive way by diffraction with hard x rays. We optimize the(More)
Ribosomes, the protein factories of living cells, translate genetic information carried by messenger RNAs into proteins, and are thus involved in virtually all aspects of cellular development and maintenance. The few available structures of the eukaryotic ribosome reveal that it is more complex than its prokaryotic counterpart, owing mainly to the presence(More)
Neutrinoless double beta decay is a process that violates lepton number conservation. It is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. This Letter reports the results from phase I of the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy) searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of the(More)