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The occurrences of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and heterotrophic bacteria were monitored in five small water systems over a nine-month period to investigate the association between HAA degradation and heterotrophic bacteria populations. The sampling sites were chosen to cover the entire distribution network for each system. An inverse(More)
Sorption and combined sorption-biodegradation experiments were conducted in laboratory batch studies with 100 g soil/sediments and 500 mL water to investigate the fates in aqueous environments of acetaminophen, caffeine, propranolol, and acebutolol, four frequently used and often-detected pharmaceuticals. All four compounds have demonstrated significant(More)
In vitro bioassays have indicated that haloacetamides and haloacetaldehydes exhibit the highest cytotoxicity among DBP classes. Previous research has focused on their potential formation from the chlorination or chloramination of aliphatic compounds, particularly nonaromatic amino acids, and acetaldehyde. The present work found that acetaldehyde served as a(More)
The direct incorporation of chloramines and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) may provide the nitrogen for nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs). This study explores the contributions of natural DON and chloramine incorporation to the formation of N-DBPs during chloramination. This study also evaluates the relationship between N-DBPs and carbonaceous(More)
It is quite rare to find biodegradation in rapid sand filtration for drinking water treatment. This might be due to frequent backwashes and low substrate levels. High chlorine concentrations may inhibit biofilm development, especially for plants with pre-chlorination. However, in tropical or subtropical regions, bioactivity on the sand surface may be quite(More)
During the chloramination of natural waters, both chloramines and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) can serve as nitrogen sources for the formation of trichloronitromethane (TCNM) and dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN). The present study investigated the formation kinetics and precursor characteristics of TCNM and DCAN. (15)N-Isotopic monochloramination of the(More)
In this work, we investigated the emerging pollutants in Taiwanese groundwater for the first time and correlated their presence with possible contamination sources. Fifty target pharmaceuticals and perfluorinated chemicals in groundwater were mostly present at ng L(-1) concentrations, except for 17α-ethynylestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, and acetaminophen(More)
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