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OBJECTIVE Monolayer expansion of human articular chondrocytes (HACs) is known to result in progressive dedifferentiation of the chondrocytes and loss of their stable cartilage formation capacity in vivo. For an optimal outcome of chondrocyte-based repair strategies, HACs capable of ectopic cartilage formation may be required. This study was undertaken to(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are crucial pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) for activation of innate and adapted immunity. TLR2 heterodimerizes with TLR1 or TLR6 to recognize multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of fungi, Gram-positive pathogens, and mycobacteria. Receptor activation culminates in monocyte, T-helper (Th)1, and Th2(More)
INTRODUCTION In this study, we report on initial efforts to discover putative biomarkers for differential diagnosis of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) versus sepsis; and different stages of sepsis. In addition, we also investigated whether there are proteins that can discriminate between patients who survived sepsis from those who did not.(More)
Septic diseases are characterized by an initial systemic, proinflammatory phase, followed by a period of anti-inflammation. In the context of the latter, monocytes have been described to display altered functions, including reduced TNF secretion and T cell-stimulating capacities in response to recall antigens. This hyporesponsiveness is supposed to be(More)
Miniaturized and parallelized sandwich immunoassays allow the simultaneous analysis of a variety of parameters in a single experiment. Bead-based protein array systems or suspension microarrays are well-established multiplex sandwich immunoassay formats. To study inflammatory diseases, protein arrays can be used to analyze changes in plasma protein levels,(More)
Advances in high-throughput screening, together with rapid progress in genomic and proteomic sciences, have considerably stimulated the development of a variety of biomarker discovery tools and have contributed to the improvement of clinical diagnosis. Major challenges include the obtaining of high-quality data sets based on assays that are rapid, reliable,(More)
This chapter describes the development and use of bead-based miniaturized multiplexed sandwich immunoassays for focused protein profiling. Bead-based protein arrays or suspension microarrays allow simultaneous analysis of a variety of parameters within a single experiment. In suspension microarrays capture antibodies are coupled onto color-coded(More)
Inflammation is a defense reaction of an organism against harmful stimuli such as tissue injury or infectious agents. The relationship between the infecting microorganism and the immune, inflammatory, and coagulation responses of the host is intricately intertwined. Due to its complex nature, the molecular mechanisms of inflammation are not yet understood(More)
Within the last decade, protein microarray technology has been successfully used for the simultaneous quantification of target proteins from minimal amounts of samples in basic and applied proteome research. The robustness and appropriate sensitivity of these miniaturized assays have been demonstrated and thus the transfer to routine and high-throughput(More)