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In spite of a large body of histochemical evidence for a cholinergic system in the cerebellum, particularly in lobules IX and X, the physiological role of such a system has remained obscure. In view of the important role of these same lobules in the control of the vestibulo-ocular (VOR) and optokinetic (OKR) responses, we tested the effect of(More)
Previous experiments show that altered visual feedback can change VOR gain. Such changes also presumably occur when eyeglasses are donned and doffed, or when bifocals are worn. In these cases, a nonvisual cue accompanies the required gain adjustment (frames on/off for eyeglasses, looking up/down for bifocals). We set out to show that a subject can establish(More)
We investigated the influence of static head orientation and position, relative to the axis of body rotation, upon vestibular adaptation. With the head centered, displaced anterior to the axis of body rotation, or tilted 40 degrees to 45 degrees in roll or pitch, the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was trained (to go either up or down) for one(More)
1. Three-dimensional rotations of both eyes were measured in alert rabbits during optokinetic stimulation about axes lying in the horizontal plane or about an earth-vertical axis, with either one or both eyes viewing the stimulus. Optokinetic stimulus speed was 2 degrees /s, either continuous or alternating in polarity (triangular stimulus). In addition to(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the use of the combined imaging modality of multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in obtaining spectrally resolved morphologic features of the cornea, limbus, conjunctiva, and sclera in whole, ex vivo porcine eyes. METHODS The 780-nm output of a femtosecond,(More)
1. In the alert, pigmented rabbit, eye movements were recorded during optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and during optokinetic after nystagmus (OKAN). These responses were elicited by steps in surround-velocity ranging from 5-110 degrees/s during binocular as well as monocular viewing. 2. In the baseline condition, OKN showed an approximately linear build-up of(More)
PURPOSE To demonstrate the application of multiphoton fluorescence (MF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy for ex vivo characterization of the structural alterations of human corneas due to keratoconus. METHODS Buttons of keratoconic corneas derived from penetrating keratoplasty were sent for structural analysis with a custom-built(More)
The photoaging process of facial skin is investigated by use of multiphoton fluorescence and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. We obtain the autofluorescence (AF) and SHG images of the superficial dermis from the facial skin of three patients aged 20, 40, and 70 years. The results show that areas of AF increase with age, whereas areas of SHG(More)