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In standard experimental environments, a constant proportion of CA1 principal cells are place cells, each with a spatial receptive field called a place field. Although the properties of place cells are a basis for understanding the mammalian representation of spatial knowledge, there is no consensus on which of the two fundamental neural-coding hypotheses(More)
Behavioral analysis commonly assesses cognitive deficits in rodents following traumatic brain injury (TBI). We examined rats that received sham, mild or moderate injury in the controlled cortical impact model of TBI. The rats were tested in a novel hierarchy of four behavioral tasks with increasing cognitive demand. All three groups had similar performance(More)
Brain abnormalities acquired early in life may cause schizophrenia, characterized by adulthood onset of psychosis, affective flattening, and cognitive impairments. Cognitive symptoms, like impaired cognitive control, are now recognized to be important treatment targets but cognition-promoting treatments are ineffective. We hypothesized that cognitive(More)
Fifty-two patients with unstable fractures of distal clavicle treated by open reduction and internal fixation with hook plates or tension band wires were retrospectively reviewed. The 52 patients were divided into two groups based on the method of treatment. The hook plate (HP) group included 32 patients and the tension band wire (TBW) group included 20(More)
Lactate uses an unknown mechanism to induce panic attacks in people and panic-like symptoms in rodents. We tested whether intraperitoneal (IP) lactate injections act peripherally or centrally to induce panic-like symptoms in rats by examining whether IP lactate directly affects the CNS. In Long-Evans rats, IP lactate (2 mmol/kg) injection increased lactate(More)
Despite substantial effort and immense need, the treatment options for major neuropsychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia are limited and largely ineffective at improving the most debilitating cognitive symptoms that are central to mental illness. These symptoms include cognitive control deficits, the inability to selectively use information that is(More)
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