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It is generally believed that consolidation of long-term memory requires activation of protein kinases, transcription of genes, and new protein synthesis. However, little is known about the signal cascades involved in the extinction of memory, which occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer followed by the unconditioned stimulus. Here, we show for(More)
mRNA of kappa opioid receptor (KOR) can be transported to nerve fibers, including axons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and can be locally translated. Yeast three-hybrid screening identifies Copb1 as a kor mRNA-associated protein that form complexes with endogenous kor mRNA, which are colocalized in the soma and axons of DRG neurons. Axonal transport of kor(More)
Complex disfluencies that involve the repetition or correction of words are frequent in conversational speech, with repetition disfluencies alone accounting for over 20% of disfluencies. These disfluencies generally do not lead to comprehension errors for human listeners. We propose that the frequent occurrence of parallel prosodic features in the(More)
Although the underlying mechanism is not elucidated, it has been postulated repeatedly that deprivation of sleep, particularly rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, affects learning. Here we report that memory for newly acquired information is impaired after a specific period of REM sleep deprivation (REMD). Memory retrieval-induced phosphorylation of protein(More)
Repetition disfluencies are among the most frequent type of disfluency in conversational speech, accounting for over 20% of disfluencies, yet they do not generally lead to comprehension errors for human listeners. We propose that parallel prosodic features in the REP and ALT intervals of the repetition disfluency provide strong perceptual cues that signal(More)
This paper explores ways to incorporate effective teaching methods in computer-aided pronunciation training (CAPT) programs to help second language learners acquire Mandarin lexical tones. It is hypothesized that exaggerated stimuli might help learners to identify relevant acoustic cues, varied stimuli might help them build robust classifications, and an(More)
How the properties of a first language (Mandarin, Korean) influence the comprehension of sentences in a second language (English) was investigated in a series of self-paced reading time studies. Native Mandarin-and Korean-speaking learners of English were compared with native English speakers on how they resolved a temporary ambiguity about the relationship(More)
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