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A signal attenuation difference of arrival (SADOA) scheme is proposed to combine with the time difference of arrival (TDOA) method for mobile location estimation. On the basis of ratio of distances between the mobile and base stations derived from differences of signal attenuations, each SADOA measurement yields a circle on which the mobile may lie.(More)
–When a mobile station moves, path loss and shadow fading contribute to large-scale variation in the received signal strength. The variation of signal strength caused by shadow fading is a random process, and handover decision mechanisms based on measurements of signal strength induce the " ping-pong effect ". This paper proposes an improved handover(More)
—Based on the basic principle of spread spectrum systems, this paper proposes a hybrid automatic-repeat-request (HARQ) scheme with interference mitigation for multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The proposed hybrid media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) design orthogonally spreads(More)