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We estimated the dates of the monocot-dicot split and the origin of core eudicots using a large chloroplast (cp) genomic dataset. Sixty-one protein-coding genes common to the 12 completely sequenced cp genomes of land plants were concatenated and analyzed. Three reliable split events were used as calibration points and for cross references. Both the method(More)
Four known compounds have been isolated from the stems of Liriodendron tulipifera, and the structures of these pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analysis. Isolated compounds were screened for free radical scavenging ability, metal chelating power assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The anti-tyrosinase effects of L.(More)
BACKGROUND Neocallimastix patriciarum is one of the common anaerobic fungi in the digestive tracts of ruminants that can actively digest cellulosic materials, and its cellulases have great potential for hydrolyzing cellulosic feedstocks. Due to the difficulty in culture and lack of a genome database, it is not easy to gain a global understanding of the(More)
BACKGROUND As a strong fermentator, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the potential to be an excellent host for ethanol production by consolidated bioprocessing. For this purpose, it is necessary to transform cellulose genes into the yeast genome because it contains no cellulose genes. However, heterologous protein expression in S. cerevisiae often suffers from(More)
BACKGROUND To achieve an economical cellulosic ethanol production, a host that can do both cellulosic saccharification and ethanol fermentation is desirable. However, to engineer a non-cellulolytic yeast to be such a host requires synthetic biology techniques to transform multiple enzyme genes into its genome. RESULTS A technique, named Promoter-based(More)
Kinetic measurement of protein folding is limited by the method used to trigger folding. Traditional methods, such as stopped flow, have a long mixing dead time and cannot be used to monitor fast folding processes. Here, we report a compound, 4-(bromomethyl)-6,7-dimethoxycoumarin, that can be used as a "photolabile cage" to study the early stages of protein(More)
Whether turns play an active or passive role in protein folding remains a controversial issue at this juncture. Here we use a photolabile cage strategy in combination with laser-flash photolysis and photoacoustic calorimetry to study the effects of different turns on the kinetics of beta-hairpin refolding on a nanosecond time scale. This strategy opens up a(More)
BACKGROUND Cellulose, which is the most abundant renewable biomass on earth, is a potential bio-resource of alternative energy. The hydrolysis of plant polysaccharides is catalyzed by microbial cellulases, including endo-β-1,4-glucanases, cellobiohydrolases, cellodextrinases, and β-glucosidases. Converting cellobiose by β-glucosidases is the key factor for(More)
Investigation of the leaves' extract of Cinnamomum tenuifolium (Lauraceae) led to the isolation of one novel benzodioxocinone, 2,3-dihydro-6,6-dimethylbenzo-[b][1,5]dioxocin-4(6 H)-one (1). The structure was determined through in-depth spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric analyses. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using the following in vitro method:(More)