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BACKGROUND Highly pathogenic influenza viruses pose a constant threat which could lead to a global pandemic. Vaccination remains the principal measure to reduce morbidity and mortality from such pandemics. The availability and surging demand for pandemic vaccines needs to be addressed in the preparedness plans. This study presents an improved high-yield(More)
Current egg-based influenza vaccine production technology, which is labor intensive and slow, would not be able to meet demand during an influenza pandemic. Thus, interest in the emerging technology of using mammalian cells for vaccine production has been great. In this study, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells using microcarrier culture systems were(More)
BACKGROUND Antigen sparing and cross-protective immunity are regarded as crucial in pandemic influenza vaccine development. Both targets can be achieved by adjuvantation strategy to elicit a robust and broadened immune response. We assessed the immunogenicity of an inactivated H5N1 whole-virion vaccine (A/Vietnam/1194/2004 NIBRG-14, clade 1) formulated with(More)
The interrelationship between microglia and astrocytes in cerebral ischemia was determined in vitro by adding in vitro ischemia-induced supernatant from microglia into astrocytes under the same conditions (glucose-, oxygen- and serum-free). The involvement of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was further investigated by immunoblocking assay(More)
BACKGROUND Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) in Asia and now is being recognized as an important neurotropic virus. Effective medications and prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection are urgently needed. Based on the success of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, a prototype chemically inactivated EV71(More)
Neutrophil activity was elevated in the conditioned mice for the first time through an established conditioned training process. Catecholamines were proved to be important in the regulation of this conditioned innate immunity. In the study, the camphor odor (as the conditioned stimulus, CS) and poly I: C (as the unconditioned stimulus, US) was used to(More)
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