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The enteric peptides, guanylin and uroguanylin, are local regulators of intestinal secretion by activation of receptor-guanylate cyclase (R-GC) signaling molecules that produce cyclic GMP (cGMP) and stimulate the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-dependent secretion of Cl- and HCO3-. Our experiments demonstrate that mRNA transcripts for(More)
Intact soil-core microcosms were used to compare persistence of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 3732RN-L11 in fallow soil and on wheat roots with field releases at diverse sites. Parallel field and microcosm releases at four sites in 1996 were repeated with addition of one site in 1997. Microcosms were obtained fresh and maintained at 60% soil water holding(More)
Thin films bonded to a substrate often sustain large in-plane residual stresses that are transferred to the film via shear stresses on the interface near their edges. These edge zones play a significant role in film delamination. A new method is introduced to analyze both the residual stress distribution in a film near its edge and the energy release rate(More)
In contact with an environment, a solid may gain or lose mass due to, for example, deposition or etching. As the reaction proceeds, the surface of the solid moves, either extending or receding. If the solid is under stress, the elastic energy adds to the driving force of the reaction, and may cause the surface to roughen. This phenomenon has recently led to(More)
We experimentally demonstrated a passively mode-locked femtosecond laser by using a graphene-based saturable absorber mirror (graphene SAM) in the spectral region of 2 μm. The graphene SAM was fabricated by transferring chemical-vapor-deposited, high-quality, and large-area graphene on a highly reflective plane mirror. Stable mode-locked laser pulses as(More)
A diode-end-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Tm-doped calcium lithium niobium gallium garnet (Tm:CLNGG) disordered crystal laser was demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. With a 790 nm laser diode pumping, stable CW mode-locking operation was obtained by using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. The disordered crystal laser(More)
Emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization was employed to synthesize polystyrene (PS) microspheres, which were then self-assembled into an ordered periodic structure. A photochromic film was formed by adding polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) around the self-assembly of PS microspheres on a PDMS substrate. During polymerization, the PS microspheres shrunk depending(More)
Evidence has accumulated recently that a crack can propagate on an interface between dissimilar solids at speeds between the smallest and the largest sonic speeds of the constituent solids. Such an intersonic crack has posed several challenges to the existing theory. Assuming that the crack tip is a structureless point, and the solids are linearly elastic(More)
We explore the operation of spontaneous mode locking in a diode-pumped Nd:SrGdGa3O7 disordered crystal laser. The first- and second-order autocorrelations are simultaneously performed to evaluate the temporal characteristics. An 80 GHz pulse train with a pulse duration as short as 616 fs is observed. The maximum output power is 415 mW at a pump power of 6.1(More)
We report on a diode-pumped passively mode-locked subpicosecond Nd:CLNGG disordered crystal laser for the first time to our knowledge. Owing to the large inhomogeneous broadening and spectrum splitting of the disordered crystal, the Nd:CLNGG laser generated 900 fs mode-locked pulses with a repetition rate of approximately 88 MHz at 1061 nm wavelength. With(More)