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Intact soil-core microcosms were used to compare persistence of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 3732RN-L11 in fallow soil and on wheat roots with field releases at diverse sites. Parallel field and microcosm releases at four sites in 1996 were repeated with addition of one site in 1997. Microcosms were obtained fresh and maintained at 60% soil water holding(More)
In contact with an environment, a solid may gain or lose mass due to, for example, deposition or etching. As the reaction proceeds, the surface of the solid moves, either extending or receding. If the solid is under stress, the elastic energy adds to the driving force of the reaction, and may cause the surface to roughen. This phenomenon has recently led to(More)
Evidence has accumulated recently that a crack can propagate on an interface between dissimilar solids at speeds between the smallest and the largest sonic speeds of the constituent solids. Such an intersonic crack has posed several challenges to the existing theory. Assuming that the crack tip is a structureless point, and the solids are linearly elastic(More)
Emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization was employed to synthesize polystyrene (PS) microspheres, which were then self-assembled into an ordered periodic structure. A photochromic film was formed by adding polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) around the self-assembly of PS microspheres on a PDMS substrate. During polymerization, the PS microspheres shrunk depending(More)
Polystyrene (PS) opal and titania (TiO 2) inverse opal films were fabricated by the self-assembly colloidal crystal template technique. Based on Bragg's law, these sensors were used to detect the different concentrations of ethanol solution. The results indicated that TiO 2 inverse opal films were advantageous over PS opal film for detecting the ethanol(More)
Polystyrene (PS) microspheres are synthesized by dispersion polymerization, and a close-packed two-dimensional (2D) array of the PS microspheres is formed by the self-assembly method through dip drawing under magnetic stirring. This array is then used to fabricate a 2D polydimethylsiloxane concave mold by soft lithography. The mold is employed to produce(More)
In nature, in order to prevent attention from predators, the eyes of night-flying moths have evolutionarily developed an antireflective ability. The surfaces of their eyes are covered with a layer of a sub-wavelength structure that eliminates reflections of visible light. This layer allows the eyes of moths to escape detection in darkness, without(More)
This paper reports on a transmitted-type dual-channel guided-mode resonance (GMR) sensor system that uses phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) to achieve tunable phase detection sensitivity. Five interference images are captured for the PSI phase calculation within ∼15  s by using a liquid crystal retarder and a USB web camera. The GMR sensor structure is(More)
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