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Bacterial infections have been shown to be involved in several inflammatory diseases such as brain inflammation. A major factor for these findings is due to the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by host cells triggered by the components released from the bacteria. Among these components, lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a component of Gram-positive bacterial(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a redox signal, are produced by various enzymatic reactions and chemical processes, which are essential for many physiological functions and act as second messengers. However, accumulating evidence has implicated the pathogenesis of several human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders related to increased oxidative(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-9, is induced by cytokines including IL-1 beta and contributes to airway injury and remodeling. However, the mechanisms underlying IL-1 beta-induced MMP-9 expression and cell migration in human A549 cells remain unclear. Here, we report that the IL-1 beta-induced MMP-9 gene expression was mediated through(More)
The deleterious effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the central nervous system (CNS) include disturbance of water homeostasis and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. In the CNS, ischemic injury elicits ET-1 release from astrocytes, behaving through G-protein coupled ET receptors. These considerations raise the question of whether ET-1 influences cellular(More)
Many reports have shown that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 plays an important role in brain inflammation and diseases. In our previous study, bradykinin (BK) has been shown to induce proMMP-9 expression via MAPKs and NF-kappaB in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1). However, the molecular mechanisms and physiological roles underlying BK-induced MMP-9 expression(More)
In a previous study, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) has been shown to induce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression through mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways in rat brain astrocytes. Moreover, transactivation of growth factor receptors and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascade has been mentioned in the(More)
Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) has been shown to induce the expression of adhesion molecules on various cell types and contributes to inflammatory responses. However, the molecular mechanisms by which IL-1beta induced intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression remain unclear in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). Here, we(More)
An elevated level of glucose has been found in the blood of hyperglycemia and diabetes patients associated with several central nervous system (CNS) complications. These disorders may be due to the up-regulation of many neurotoxic mediators by host cells triggered by high glucose (HG). Moreover, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a crucial role in tissue(More)
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the multifunctional factors during diverse physiological and pathological processes including development, wound healing, proliferation, and cancer metastasis. Both TGF-β and MMPs have been shown to play crucial roles in brain pathological changes. Thus, we investigated the(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression induced by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) was investigated in rat brain astrocyte-1 (RBA-1). Here we report that the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) pathways participate in the induction of MMP-9 expression by IL-1beta. Zymographic, western blotting, and RT-PCR(More)