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Bacterial infections have been shown to be involved in several inflammatory diseases such as brain inflammation. A major factor for these findings is due to the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by host cells triggered by the components released from the bacteria. Among these components, lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a component of Gram-positive bacterial(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a redox signal, are produced by various enzymatic reactions and chemical processes, which are essential for many physiological functions and act as second messengers. However, accumulating evidence has implicated the pathogenesis of several human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders related to increased oxidative(More)
The deleterious effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the central nervous system (CNS) include disturbance of water homeostasis and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. In the CNS, ischemic injury elicits ET-1 release from astrocytes, behaving through G-protein coupled ET receptors. These considerations raise the question of whether ET-1 influences cellular(More)
Many reports have shown that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 plays an important role in brain inflammation and diseases. In our previous study, bradykinin (BK) has been shown to induce proMMP-9 expression via MAPKs and NF-kappaB in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1). However, the molecular mechanisms and physiological roles underlying BK-induced MMP-9 expression(More)
An elevated level of glucose has been found in the blood of hyperglycemia and diabetes patients associated with several central nervous system (CNS) complications. These disorders may be due to the up-regulation of many neurotoxic mediators by host cells triggered by high glucose (HG). Moreover, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a crucial role in tissue(More)
BACKGROUND Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the multifunctional factors during diverse physiological and pathological processes including development, wound healing, proliferation, and cancer metastasis. Both TGF-β and MMPs have been shown to play crucial roles in brain pathological changes. Thus, we investigated(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression induced by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) was investigated in rat brain astrocyte-1 (RBA-1). Here we report that the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) pathways participate in the induction of MMP-9 expression by IL-1beta. Zymographic, western blotting, and RT-PCR(More)
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is elevated and participates in the regulation of several brain inflammatory disorders. The deleterious effects of ET-1 on endothelial cells may aggravate brain inflammation mediated through the upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying ET-1-induced COX-2 expression in brain(More)
OBJECTIVE Thrombin upregulates expression of several proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) which may contribute to atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying thrombin-induced EGF receptor (EGFR) expression and its effect on VSMCs. METHODS AND RESULTS Normal rat VSMCs were used. First, Western blotting and RT-PCR analyses(More)
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a crucial role in tissue pathological changes such as brain injuries. Our previous studies have demonstrated that bradykinin (BK) induces the expression of several inflammatory proteins, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 and COX-2, via mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in rat brain astrocytes(More)