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BACKGROUND Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the multifunctional factors during diverse physiological and pathological processes including development, wound healing, proliferation, and cancer metastasis. Both TGF-β and MMPs have been shown to play crucial roles in brain pathological changes. Thus, we investigated(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a redox signal, are produced by various enzymatic reactions and chemical processes, which are essential for many physiological functions and act as second messengers. However, accumulating evidence has implicated the pathogenesis of several human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders related to increased oxidative(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression induced by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) was investigated in rat brain astrocyte-1 (RBA-1). Here we report that the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) pathways participate in the induction of MMP-9 expression by IL-1beta. Zymographic, western blotting, and RT-PCR(More)
Bacterial infections have been shown to be involved in several inflammatory diseases such as brain inflammation. A major factor for these findings is due to the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by host cells triggered by the components released from the bacteria. Among these components, lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a component of Gram-positive bacterial(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in pathological processes of brain inflammation, injury, and neurodegeneration. Moreover, bradykinin (BK) induces the expression of several inflammatory proteins in brain astrocytes. Recent studies have suggested that increased oxidative stress is implicated in the brain inflammation and injury.(More)
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls and may be elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients suffering from meningitis. Among matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-9 has been observed in patients with brain inflammatory diseases and may contribute to the pathology of brain diseases. Moreover, several studies have(More)
BACKGROUND Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a component of Gram-positive bacterial cell walls, which has been found to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of patients suffering from meningitis. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-9 especially, have been observed in patients with brain inflammatory diseases and may contribute to brain disease pathology.(More)
Bradykinin (BK) has been shown to induce the expression of several inflammatory mediators, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in brain astrocytes. These mediators may contribute to neuronal dysfunction and death in various neurological disorders. However, the effects of multiple inflammatory mediators released from(More)
In a previous study, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) has been shown to induce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression through mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways in rat brain astrocytes. Moreover, transactivation of growth factor receptors and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascade has been mentioned in the(More)
Among matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-9 has been observed in patients with brain inflammatory diseases and may contribute to the pathology of brain diseases. Thrombin has been known as a regulator of MMP-9 expression and cells migration. However, the mechanisms underlying thrombin-induced MMP-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1 cells) were not(More)