Learn More
Intracellular recordings were made in vivo from 9 giant aspiny neurons in the neostriatum of urethane-anesthetized rats. The cells were identified by intracellular staining with HRP or biocytin. The neurons exhibited morphological features typical of neostriatal cholinergic interneurons. Six of the cells were obtained from intact animals, while 3 were(More)
Neuronal responses of the subthalamic nucleus (STH) to stimulation of the globus pallidus (GP) and the substantia nigra (SN) were studied by intracellular recording in the decorticated rat. (1) GP and SN stimulation evoked antidromic spikes in STH neurons with a mean latency of 1.2 ms and 1.1 ms, respectively. Based on the above latencies, the mean(More)
Light microscopic analysis of rat subthalamic (STH) neurons which were intracellularly labeled with horseradish peroxidase, following the acquisition of electrophysiological data, revealed the following: (1) The somata of STH neurons were polygonal or oval with occasionally a few somatic spines. Usually three or four primary dendrites arose from the soma.(More)
Excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked in rat neostriatal spiny projections neurons were followed by a long (100-300 ms) period of membrane hyperpolarization, followed in turn by a late depolarization. Concomitant with these changes in membrane potential were inhibition and subsequent excitation of spontaneous firing and excitatory activity evoked from(More)
Stimulation of thalamic intralaminar nuclei or structures along the intrathalamic trajectory of thalamostriatal axons evoked complex EPSPs and subsequent hyperpolarizations in rat neostriatal spiny neurons identified by intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase and/or antidromic activation from substantia nigra. In intact urethane-anesthetized rats,(More)
Intracellularly labeled rat neostriatal projection neurons were analyzed with both light and electron microscopy. The axons of medium spiny neurons were traced into the globus pallidus and were found to make synaptic contacts with pallidal dendrites. Despite the common somato-dendritic morphology of the neostriatal projection neurons, two different(More)
At least two types of large neurons (somatic cross-sectional areas, SA greater than 300 microns2) and five-types of medium neurons (SA between 100 and 300 microns2) were distinguished in Golgi preparations of the adult rat neostriatum. Type I large cells had aspinous somata with long, radiating, sparsely spined dendrites which were sometimes varicose(More)
The physiological and morphological (light and electron microscopic) properties of four categories of neostriatal neurons (two types of medium spiny cells and two types of aspiny cells) were analyzed using the technique of intracellular recording and intracellular labeling with horseradish peroxidase. All of the neurons in this study had excitatory(More)
A pre-embedding double-labeling immunocytochemical method was used to examine the synaptic relationships between cholinergic neurons and the parvalbumin immunoreactive (PV+) neurons. The PV+ neurons were labeled by silver-intensified colloidal gold particles, and the cholinergic neurons by immunoperoxidase reaction products. Cholinergic and PV+ axon(More)
<italic>A binary search tree can be globally balanced by readjustment of pointers or with a sorting process in O</italic>(<italic>n</italic>) <italic>time, n being the total number of nodes. This paper presents three global balancing algorithms, one of which uses folding with the other two adopting parallel procedures. These algorithms show improvement in(More)