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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) performs multiple functions in the cell: it is the major site of protein and lipid synthesis as well as the most important intracellular Ca(2+) reservoir. Adverse conditions, including a decrease in the ER Ca(2+) level or an increase in oxidative stress, impair the formation of new proteins, resulting in ER stress. The(More)
Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a multitransmembrane domain-spanning endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-located protein that is evolutionarily conserved and protects against apoptosis and ER stress. Furthermore, BI-1 is proposed to modulate ER Ca(2+) homeostasis by acting as a Ca(2+)-leak channel. Based on experimental determination of the BI-1 topology, we propose that(More)
Cell-death and -survival decisions are critically controlled by intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and dynamics at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs) play a pivotal role in these processes by mediating Ca(2+) flux from the ER into the cytosol and mitochondria. Hence, it is clear that many(More)
Several members of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-protein family, including Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L) and Mcl-1, directly bind and regulate the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R), one of the two main intracellular Ca(2+)-release channel types present in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the molecular determinants underlying their binding to the IP(3)R(More)
Anti-apoptotic B cell-lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) proteins are emerging as therapeutic targets in a variety of cancers for precision medicines, like the BH3-mimetic drug venetoclax (ABT-199), which antagonizes the hydrophobic cleft of Bcl-2. However, the impact of venetoclax on intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and dynamics in cell systems has not been characterized in(More)
Anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family members target several intracellular Ca(2+)-transport systems. Bcl-2, via its N-terminal Bcl-2 homology (BH) 4 domain, inhibits both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs), while Bcl-XL, likely independently of its BH4 domain, sensitizes IP3Rs. It remains elusive whether(More)
Ca2+ signalling plays an important role in various physiological processes in vertebrates. In mammals, the highly conserved anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein is an important modulator of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), i.e. the main intracellular Ca2+ - release channel located at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The Bcl-2(More)
Calcium ions (Ca2+) are crucial, ubiquitous, intracellular second messengers required for functional mitochondrial metabolism during uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells. The mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are connected via "mitochondria-associated ER membranes" (MAMs) where ER-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer occurs, impacting the(More)
Mitochondria are important regulators of cell death and cell survival. Mitochondrial Ca2+ levels are critically involved in both of these processes. On the one hand, excessive mitochondrial Ca2+ leads to Ca2+-induced mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and thus apoptosis. On the other hand, mitochondria need Ca2+ in order to efficiently fuel the(More)
The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein is emerging as an efficient inhibitor of IP3R function, contributing to its oncogenic properties. Yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain not fully understood. Using mutations or pharmacological inhibition to antagonize Bcl-2's hydrophobic cleft, we excluded this functional domain as responsible for Bcl-2-mediated(More)
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