Howard W. Mitchell

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Excessive airway obstruction is the cause of symptoms and abnormal lung function in asthma. As airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the effecter controlling airway calibre, it is suspected that dysfunction of ASM contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of ASM in the series of events leading to asthmatic symptoms is not clear. It is(More)
1 A new in vitro preparation, the isolated lung strip of the cat, is described for investigating the direct effect of drugs on the smooth muscle of the peripheral airways of the lung. The preparation comprises a thin strip of lung parenchyma which can be mounted in a conventional organ bath for isometric tension recording. Its pharmacological responses have(More)
The terminal airways from embryonic lung in situ or as explants exhibit rhythmic spontaneous contractions. Our objective was to see whether narrowing responses of the airways occurred throughout the bronchial tree in the first trimester foetus and, if so, to characterize them. The bronchial tree was freed of vasculature and parenchyma from the lungs of(More)
In vivo, breathing movements, including tidal and deep inspirations (DIs), exert a number of beneficial effects on respiratory system responsiveness in healthy humans that are diminished or lost in asthma, possibly as a result of reduced distension (strain) of airway smooth muscle (ASM). We used bronchial segments from pigs to assess airway responsiveness(More)
1 Airway narrowing was determined in vitro as a measure of bronchial reactivity. A bronchial segment from pig lung was perfused with a Krebs solution and the change in flow rate to drugs and small ions perfused intraluminally was compared with that obtained by application to the serosal surface. 2 The sensitivity (EC50) to acetylchloline was 30 times(More)
When bronchial segments were perfused with Krebs solution at a constant pressure (5-6 cmH2O), the resistance rose exponentially with increasing concentrations of either carbachol or histamine in the lumen. The pressure-flow relationship was linear. Histamine and carbachol caused 43 and 47% muscle shortening, respectively, and produced the same maximum(More)
In healthy individuals, deep inspiration produces bronchodilation and reduced airway responsiveness, which may be a response of the airway wall to mechanical stretch. The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro response of isolated human airways to the dynamic mechanical stretch associated with normal breathing. Human bronchial segments (n = 6) were(More)
During bronchoconstriction elastic after-loads arise due to distortion of lung parenchyma by the narrowing airway. In the present study, the functional effect of parenchymal elastic after-load on airway narrowing was determined. Airway narrowing was measured in vivo over a range of transpulmonary pressures and compared with in vitro narrowing measured at(More)
Models of airway function indicate that responsiveness (flow reduction) to bronchoconstrictor provocation depends on airway smooth muscle shortening and airway wall morphology. The contribution of these factors to the responsiveness of central and peripheral bronchi was assessed. Lumen flow was recorded in porcine perfused small (2 min i.d.) and large(More)
Bronchoconstrictor responses are quantitatively different when they are evoked under static conditions and during or after periods of deep inspiration. In vivo, deep inspirations produce bronchodilation and protect the lung from subsequent bronchoconstriction (termed bronchoprotection). These effects may be due in part to dynamic stretch on airways produced(More)