Howard W. Mitchell

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Excessive airway obstruction is the cause of symptoms and abnormal lung function in asthma. As airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the effecter controlling airway calibre, it is suspected that dysfunction of ASM contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of ASM in the series of events leading to asthmatic symptoms is not clear. It is(More)
DYNAMIC RESPIRATORY MOVEMENTS such as deep inspiration (DI) are believed to play an important role in limiting airway narrowing, and a failure of this physiological regulation is offered as a potential pathway to airway hyperresponsive-ness in asthma (1). While our understanding of the mecha-nism(s) involved is incomplete, beneficial effects of DI are(More)
The primary functional abnormality in asthma is airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR)-excessive airway narrowing to bronchoconstrictor stimuli. Our understanding of the underlying mechanism(s) producing AHR is incomplete. While structure-function relationships have been evoked to explain AHR (e.g., increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass in asthma) more(More)
Minimally invasive imaging of upper airway obstructions in children and adults is needed to improve clinical decision-making. Toward this goal, we demonstrate an anatomical optical coherence tomography (aOCT) system delivered via a small-bore, flexible endoscope to quantify the upper airway lumen geometry. Helical scans were obtained from a(More)
The effect of tetraethylammonium (TEA) and K+ on contractions to histamine and acetylcholine have been compared in the pig isolated trachea using organ bath and sucrose-gap techniques. Histamine elicited weak contractions, compared with acetylcholine; however, these contractions were markedly potentiated by pretreatment with TEA (10 mM) or by raising the(More)
BACKGROUND Previous histological and imaging studies have shown the presence of variability in the degree of bronchoconstriction of airways sampled at different locations in the lung (i.e., heterogeneity). Heterogeneity can occur at different airway generations and at branching points in the bronchial tree. Whilst heterogeneity has been detected by previous(More)
1. Stretch-induced electrical and mechanical responses in segments of ferret trachealis muscle were studied. Stretches and post-stretch length changes were quantified by measuring distances between two marker spheres placed on the muscle surface. Electrical responses were determined by measuring membrane potential in the muscle cell syncytium. 2. Smooth(More)
1. We investigated the distribution and characteristics of motor pathways to individual smooth muscle cells activated by electrical stimulation of either, single nerves which enter the tracheal plexus (inlet nerves), or a longitudinal nerve trunk (LNT) located near the entrance of an inlet nerve into the plexus. Excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) were(More)