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Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor lamivudine leads to a rapid decline in plasma viremia and provides estimates for crucial kinetic constants of HBV replication. We find that in persistently infected patients, HBV particles are cleared from the plasma with a half-life of approximately 1.0 day,(More)
The visuotopic organization of the primary visual cortex (area 17) and the extrastriate visual regions surrounding it (areas 18a and 18) has been studied in gray rats using standard microelectrode mapping techniques. The results confirm and extend previous observations in the rat. Apart from the representation of the contralateral visual field (VF) in area(More)
1.0 GUIDELINES 1.1 Development of guidelines There is currently no clear national consensus for the optimal diagnosis and treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. The need for these guidelines was highlighted following the annual meeting of the British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL) in September 2000. During their development these guidelines were(More)
An RNA virus, designated hepatitis G virus (HGV), was identified from the plasma of a patient with chronic hepatitis. Extension from an immunoreactive complementary DNA clone yielded the entire genome (9392 nucleotides) encoding a polyprotein of 2873 amino acids. The virus is closely related to GB virus C (GBV-C) and distantly related to hepatitis C virus,(More)
Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190)). We used functional genomic approaches including(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The age-standardized mortality rate for hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing in several countries. However, in England and Wales we previously reported an increase in mortality rates from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Trends in cholangiocarcinoma in most other industrialized countries are unknown. To further study trends in(More)
The effects of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, in the absence of cirrhosis, on patients' quality of life was assessed using the short form 36 (SF36) symptomatology questionnaire. Patients with chronic hepatitis C were polysymptomatic and had significant reductions in their SF36 scores for all of the modalities tested. Patients with chronic(More)
BACKGROUND The course of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection does not appear to be determined by variations in viral virulence and may be influenced by the host immune response. We studied the distribution of human leukocyte antigens in children and adult men in the Gambia who spontaneously recovered from HBV infection as compared with the distribution of(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether combined therapy with interferon-alpha and ribavirin was more effective and cost-effective than no treatment for patients with mild chronic hepatitis C. DESIGN A multicentre, randomised, controlled, non-blinded trial assessed the efficacy of combination therapy. A Markov model used these efficacy data combined with data on(More)
Patients with chronic hepatitis C infection may exhibit neuropsychological symptoms and cognitive impairment. Post-mortem studies of hepatitis C virus HCV quasispecies and replicative intermediates indicate that the brain might act as a separate compartment for viral replication and microglia may be the locus for infection and subsequent neuroinflammatory(More)