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Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor lamivudine leads to a rapid decline in plasma viremia and provides estimates for crucial kinetic constants of HBV replication. We find that in persistently infected patients, HBV particles are cleared from the plasma with a half-life of approximately 1.0 day,… (More)
Patients with chronic hepatitis C infection may exhibit neuropsychological symptoms and cognitive impairment. Post-mortem studies of hepatitis C virus HCV quasispecies and replicative intermediates indicate that the brain might act as a separate compartment for viral replication and microglia may be the locus for infection and subsequent neuroinflammatory… (More)
1.0 GUIDELINES 1.1 Development of guidelines There is currently no clear national consensus for the optimal diagnosis and treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. The need for these guidelines was highlighted following the annual meeting of the British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL) in September 2000. During their development these guidelines were… (More)
This monograph is not intended to constitute an exhaustive coverage of all of the policies and procedures comprising KPMG's full audit process, and how it comports with generally accepted auditing standards.
The British Society of Gastroenterology guidelines on the management of cholangiocarcinoma were originally published in 2002. This is the first update since then and is based on a comprehensive review of the recent literature, including data from randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, cohort, prospective and retrospective studies.
Some patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are HB e antigen (HBeAg) negative, have circulating HBV particles, and often have especially severe chronic hepatitis. To test the hypothesis that the absence of HBeAg production may be due to a change in the nucleotide sequence of the pre-core region of the genome, 18 Greek and 3 non-Greek… (More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether combined therapy with interferon-alpha and ribavirin was more effective and cost-effective than no treatment for patients with mild chronic hepatitis C. DESIGN A multicentre, randomised, controlled, non-blinded trial assessed the efficacy of combination therapy. A Markov model used these efficacy data combined with data on… (More)
Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently report fatigue, lassitude, depression, and a perceived inability to function effectively. Several studies have shown that patients exhibit low quality-of-life scores that are independent of disease severity. We therefore considered whether HCV infection has a direct effect on the central… (More)
An RNA virus, designated hepatitis G virus (HGV), was identified from the plasma of a patient with chronic hepatitis. Extension from an immunoreactive complementary DNA clone yielded the entire genome (9392 nucleotides) encoding a polyprotein of 2873 amino acids. The virus is closely related to GB virus C (GBV-C) and distantly related to hepatitis C virus,… (More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary hepatic malignancy worldwide. Current serum diagnostic biomarkers, such as alpha-fetoprotein, are expensive and insensitive in early tumor diagnosis. Urinary biomarkers differentiating HCC from chronic liver disease would be practical and widely applicable. Using an 11.7T nuclear magnetic resonance… (More)