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BACKGROUND Age-specific effects of mammographic screening, and the timing of such effects, are a matter of debate. The results of the UK Age trial, which compared the effect of invitation to annual mammographic screening from age 40 years with commencement of screening at age 50 years on breast cancer mortality, have been reported at 10 years of follow-up(More)
PURPOSE Although an increasing number of copy-number variations are being identified as susceptibility loci for a variety of pediatric diseases, the penetrance of these copy-number variations remains mostly unknown. This poses challenges for counseling, both for recurrence risks and prenatal diagnosis. We sought to provide empiric estimates for penetrance(More)
Antenatal screening for Down syndrome was introduced a quarter of a century ago. The risk of fetal loss due to amniocentesis and the costs of the procedure restrict antenatal diagnosis to women who are at high risk of having an affected pregnancy. Initially the only method of screening women to identify older women for the diagnostic test. In 1988, the(More)
BACKGROUND Prenatal diagnosis of chromosome abnormalities through the analysis of amniocytes or chorionic villus samples (CVS) is an accepted part of prenatal care. Chromosome numerical changes (aneuploidy, polyploidy), large deletions and duplications, and rearrangements can be detected through conventional chromosome analysis (karyotyping) and smaller(More)
The available epidemiological studies of lung cancer and exposure to other people's tobacco smoke, in which exposure was assessed by whether or not a person classified as a non-smoker lived with a smoker, were identified and the results combined. There were 10 case-control studies and three prospective studies. Overall, there was a highly significant 35%(More)
We questioned 369 patients with histologically proved cancer of the pancreas and 644 control patients about their use of tobacco, alcohol, tea, and coffee. There was a weak positive association between pancreatic cancer and cigarette smoking, but we found no association with use of cigars, pipe tobacco, alcoholic beverages, or tea. A strong association(More)
OBJECTIVES To address five broad questions concerned with knowledge, anxiety, factors associated with participation/non-participation in screening programmes and the long-term sequelae of false-positive, true-positive in newborns and true-negative results. DATA SOURCES Five electronic databases, two journals and attempts were made to locate unpublished(More)
The median maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level at 14-20 weeks' gestation in 61 pregnancies associated with Down syndrome was 0.72 multiples of the median (MoM) value for a series of 36 652 singleton pregnancies unaffected by Down syndrome or neural-tube defect--a statistically significant reduction. The difference is great enough to form the basis(More)
Nineteen centres collaborated in a study to determine the efficiency of maternal serum-alpha-fetoprotein (A.F.P.) measurement as a method of screening for neural-tube defects (N.T.D.S.) between 10 and 24 weeks of pregnancy. Data were collected on 18 684 singleton pregnancies and 163 twin pregnancies without fetal N.T.D.s, and on 301 singleton pregnancies(More)