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PURPOSE Although an increasing number of copy-number variations are being identified as susceptibility loci for a variety of pediatric diseases, the penetrance of these copy-number variations remains mostly unknown. This poses challenges for counseling, both for recurrence risks and prenatal diagnosis. We sought to provide empiric estimates for penetrance(More)
BACKGROUND Age-specific effects of mammographic screening, and the timing of such effects, are a matter of debate. The results of the UK Age trial, which compared the effect of invitation to annual mammographic screening from age 40 years with commencement of screening at age 50 years on breast cancer mortality, have been reported at 10 years of follow-up(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence that some mothers of infants with Down's syndrome have abnormal metabolism of folate and methyl, as well as mutations in folate genes, which are features that are also seen in neural-tube defects (NTD). We therefore investigated whether Down's syndrome and NTD arise more often in the same family than would be expected from the(More)
The median maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level at 14-20 weeks' gestation in 61 pregnancies associated with Down syndrome was 0.72 multiples of the median (MoM) value for a series of 36 652 singleton pregnancies unaffected by Down syndrome or neural-tube defect--a statistically significant reduction. The difference is great enough to form the basis(More)
Nineteen centres collaborated in a study to determine the efficiency of maternal serum-alpha-fetoprotein (A.F.P.) measurement as a method of screening for neural-tube defects (N.T.D.S.) between 10 and 24 weeks of pregnancy. Data were collected on 18 684 singleton pregnancies and 163 twin pregnancies without fetal N.T.D.s, and on 301 singleton pregnancies(More)
A trial in the UK to study the effect on mortality from breast cancer of invitation for annual mammography from the age of 40-41, has randomised a total of 160 921 women in the ratio 1 : 2 to the intervention and control arms. All breast cancers diagnosed in the two arms have been identified, and the histology reviewed. This paper presents the results of an(More)