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It is standard in the literature on training to use wages as a sufficient statistic for productivity. This paper examines the effects of work-related training on direct measures of productivity. Using a new panel of British industries 1983–96 and a variety of estimation techniques we find that work-related training is associated with significantly higher(More)
There is a vast empirical literature of the effects of training on wages that are taken as an indirect measure of productivity. This paper is part of a smaller literature on the effects of training on direct measures of industrial productivity. We analyse a panel of British industries between 1983 and 1996. Training information (and other individual(More)
Alongside the growth in overall employment and the steady rise in average real incomes over the 1990s, the UK experienced a concentration of worklessness and low pay among certain groups in society. This was particularly acute for low-income families with children, but was also reflected in the frequency of spells out of work by the young and by the falling(More)
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AIMS Tobacco tax increases are the most effective means of reducing tobacco use and inequalities in smoking, but effectiveness depends on transnational tobacco company (TTC) pricing strategies, specifically whether TTCs overshift tax increases (increase prices on top of the tax increase) or undershift the taxes (absorb the tax increases so they are not(More)
This paper analyzes the relationship between aggregate wages and individual wages when there is time series variation in employment and in the dispersion of wages. A new and easily implementable framework for the empirical analysis of aggregation biases is developed. Aggregate real wages are shown to contain three important bias terms: one associated with(More)
SINCE it was discovered by Polge, Smith, and Parkes (1949) that living cells could be protected during freezing and thawing by adding glycerol to the storage medium, various substances and methods have been used in an attempt to achieve better results (Fleming,: 1952; Eastcott, Cross, Leigh, and North, 1954; Lovelock, 1954). We have been concerned with(More)