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The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a key regulatory role in cellular homeostasis. The inhibition of the 26S proteasome by Bortezomib leads to the accumulation of misfolded proteins, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum stress followed by a coordinated cellular response called unfolded protein response (UPR). Endoplasmic reticulum stress is also a potent(More)
Early publications using cultured cancer cells immediately recognized the phenomenon of resistance to anticancer agents. However, it was not until 1973 that it was first demonstrated that a major factor in the resistance of cancer cells was that of reduced drug accumulation. This year marks the 30th anniversary of the discovery by Juliano and Ling that(More)
Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a transcription factor induced under severe hypoxia and a component of the PERK pathway involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR), a process that protects cells from the negative consequences of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this study, we have used small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microarray(More)
Inherent and acquired resistance pathways account for the high rate of failure in cancer chemotherapy. The mechanisms or pathways mediating resistance may be classified as pharmacokinetic (i.e. alter intratumour drug exposue) or pharmacodynamic (i.e. failure to elicit cytotoxicity). More often than not, the resistant phenotype is characterised by(More)
The quiescent cell population of tumours poses a barrier to the success of many cancer therapies. Most chemotherapeutic drugs target proliferating cells, but the growth fraction of many tumours is low. Based on the multicellular tumour spheroid model, a system was developed using human colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells to mimic the microenvironment of(More)
Platinum complexes are widely used in cancer chemotherapy; however, they are associated with toxicity, high "non-specific" reactivity and relatively poor pharmacokinetic profiles. In particular, their low cellular uptake and rapid metabolic inactivation means that the amount of "active" drug reaching the nuclear compartment is low. Our strategy to(More)
PURPOSE The intra-tumour distribution of anticancer drugs remains an important, but often under-estimated, influence on drug efficacy. Tumour acidity and the presence of efflux pumps were examined for their influence on the distribution of doxorubicin in a solid tumour model. METHODS Anticancer drug distribution and overall accumulation was measured in(More)
In the accompanying paper [Mellor, Neville, Harvey, Platt, Dwek and Butters (2004) Biochem. J. 381, 861-866] we treated HL60 cells with N-alk(en)yl-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) compounds to inhibit glucosphingolipid (GSL) biosynthesis and identified a number of non-GSL-derived, small, free oligosaccharides (FOS) most likely produced due to inhibition of the(More)
BNIP3 is a hypoxia-inducible BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins that regulate apoptosis and autophagy. However the role of BNIP3 in the hypoxia response has proved difficult to define and remains controversial. In this study we show that in cancer cells, knockdown or forced expression of BNIP3 fails to modulate cell survival under hypoxic or(More)