Howard R. Mellor

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The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a key regulatory role in cellular homeostasis. The inhibition of the 26S proteasome by Bortezomib leads to the accumulation of misfolded proteins, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum stress followed by a coordinated cellular response called unfolded protein response (UPR). Endoplasmic reticulum stress is also a potent(More)
Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a transcription factor induced under severe hypoxia and a component of the PERK pathway involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR), a process that protects cells from the negative consequences of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this study, we have used small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microarray(More)
Early publications using cultured cancer cells immediately recognized the phenomenon of resistance to anticancer agents. However, it was not until 1973 that it was first demonstrated that a major factor in the resistance of cancer cells was that of reduced drug accumulation. This year marks the 30th anniversary of the discovery by Juliano and Ling that(More)
We have reductively alkylated deoxynojirimycin imino sugars using sodium cyanoborohydride to provide an efficient means of generating a series of N-alkylated compounds containing 4-18 carbon side chains. The yields were greater than 90% using a variety of aldehydes of different chain lengths, and after purification were >95% pure using (1)H-NMR.(More)
Inherent and acquired resistance pathways account for the high rate of failure in cancer chemotherapy. The mechanisms or pathways mediating resistance may be classified as pharmacokinetic (i.e. alter intratumour drug exposue) or pharmacodynamic (i.e. failure to elicit cytotoxicity). More often than not, the resistant phenotype is characterised by(More)
BACKGROUND Our current understanding of how the unique tumour microenvironment influences the efficacy of gene delivery is limited. The current investigation systematically examines the efficiency of several non-viral gene transfer agents to transfect multicellular tumour spheroids (MCTS), an in vitro model that displays a faithful three-dimensional (3D)(More)
In the accompanying paper [Mellor, Neville, Harvey, Platt, Dwek and Butters (2004) Biochem. J. 381, 861-866] we treated HL60 cells with N-alk(en)yl-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) compounds to inhibit glucosphingolipid (GSL) biosynthesis and identified a number of non-GSL-derived, small, free oligosaccharides (FOS) most likely produced due to inhibition of the(More)
The distribution of chemotherapeutics in solid tumours is poorly understood and the contribution it makes to treatment failure is unknown. Novel approaches are required to understand how the three-dimensional organisation of cancer cells in solid tumours affects drug availability. Since convective drug transport is limited by increased interstitial pressure(More)
The quiescent cell population of tumours poses a barrier to the success of many cancer therapies. Most chemotherapeutic drugs target proliferating cells, but the growth fraction of many tumours is low. Based on the multicellular tumour spheroid model, a system was developed using human colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells to mimic the microenvironment of(More)