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The second generation of ocean-color-analyzing instruments requires more accurate atmospheric correction than does the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), if one is to utilize fully their increased radiometric sensitivity. Unlike the CZCS, the new instruments possess bands in the near infrared (NIR) that are solely for aiding atmospheric correction. We show,(More)
—The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument is scheduled for launch aboard the first of the Earth Observing System (EOS) spacecraft, EOS-AM1. MISR will provide global, radiometrically calibrated, georectified, and spatially coregistered imagery at nine discrete viewing angles and four visible/near-infrared spectral bands. Algorithms(More)
— Aerosols are believed to play a direct role in the radiation budget of earth, but their net radiative effect is not well established, particularly on regional scales. Whether aerosols heat or cool a given location depends on their composition and column amount and on the surface albedo, information that is not routinely available, especially over land.(More)
The launch of ADEOS in August 1996 with POLDER, TOMS, and OCTS instruments on board and the future launch of EOS-AM 1 in mid-1998 with MODIS and MISR instruments on board start a new era in remote sensing of aerosol as part of a new remote sensing of the whole Earth system (see a list of the acronyms in the Notation section of the paper). These platforms(More)
Seven models for computing underwater radiances and irradiances by numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation are compared. The models are applied to the solution of several problems drawn from optical oceanography. The problems include highly absorbing and highly scattering waters, scattering by molecules and by particulates, stratified water,(More)
Knowledge of the directional and hemispherical reflectance properties of natural surfaces such as soils and vegetation canopies is essential for classification studies and canopy model inversion. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), an instrument to be launched in 1998 onboard the EOS-AM1 platform, will make global observations of the Earth's(More)
The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) on Nimbus-7, launched in October 1978, is the only sensor in orbit that is specifically designed to study living marine resources. The initial imagery confirms that CZCS data can be processed to a level that reveals subtle variations in the concentration of phytoplankton pigments. This development has potential(More)
—The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiome-ter (MODIS) will add a significant new capability for investigating the 70% of the earth's surface that is covered by oceans, in addition to contributing to the continuation of a decadal scale time series necessary for climate change assessment in the oceans. Sensor capabilities of particular importance for(More)
The removal of atmospheric effects from Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) images reveals eddy-like ocean turbidity patterns not apparent in the original calibrated images. Comparisons of the phytoplankton pigment concentrations derived from the corrected CZCS radiances with surface measurements agree to within less than 0.5 log C, where C is the(More)
A "bloom" of near-surface phytoplankton occurs in the Atlantic Slope region of the western Atlantic Ocean off the U.S. East Coast in the spring. Satellite time series of sea-surface temperature and phytoplankton pigment concentration, derived from measurements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA-7 Advanced Very-High-Resolution(More)