Howard R. Gordon

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The second generation of ocean-color-analyzing instruments requires more accurate atmospheric correction than does the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), if one is to utilize fully their increased radiometric sensitivity. Unlike the CZCS, the new instruments possess bands in the near infrared (NIR) that are solely for aiding atmospheric correction. We show,(More)
Aerosols are believed to play a direct role in the radiation budget of earth, but their net radiative effect is not well established, particularly on regional scales. Whether aerosols heat or cool a given location depends on their composition and column amount and on the surface albedo, information that is not routinely available, especially over land.(More)
The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument is scheduled for launch aboard the first of the Earth Observing System (EOS) spacecraft, EOS-AM1. MISR will provide global, radiometrically calibrated, georectified, and spatially coregistered imagery at nine discrete viewing angles and four visible/near-infrared spectral bands. Algorithms(More)
Monte Carlo simulations of the transfer of radiation in the ocean are used to compute the apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean as a function of the inherent optical properties. The data are used to find general relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties for optical depths tau </= 4. The results indicate that the(More)
The launch of ADEOS in August 1996 with POLDER, TOMS, and OCTS instruments on board and the future launch of EOS-AM 1 in mid-1998 with MODIS and MISR instruments on board start a new era in remote sensing of aerosol as part of a new remote sensing of the whole Earth system (see a list of the acronyms in the Notation section of the paper). These platforms(More)
For improved analysis of Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery, the radiance reflected from a planeparallel atmosphere and flat sea surface in the absence of aerosols (Rayleigh radiance) has been computed with an exact multiple scattering code, i.e., including polarization. The results indicate that the single scattering approximation normally used to(More)
Seven models for computing underwater radiances and irradiances by numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation are compared. The models are applied to the solution of several problems drawn from optical oceanography. The problems include highly absorbing and highly scattering waters, scattering by molecules and by particulates, stratified water,(More)
The processing algorithms used for relating the apparent color of the ocean observed with the Coastal-Zone Color Scanner on Nimbus-7 to the concentration of phytoplankton pigments (principally the pigment responsible for photosynthesis, chlorophyll a) are developed and discussed in detail. These algorithms are applied to the shelf and slope waters of the(More)
The possibility that the inherent sea surface spectral radiance of clear water can be computed in the green, yellow, and red regions of the spectrum solely from a knowledge of the solar zenith angle is developed in detail. This concept is tested with experimental data, and the results indicate that the normalized inherent sea surface spectral radiance is(More)
Knowledge of the directional and hemispherical reflectance properties of natural surfaces such as soils and vegetation canopies is essential for classification studies and canopy model inversion. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), an instrument to be launched in 1998 onboard the EOS-AM1 platform, will make global observations of the Earth’s(More)