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physicians such as Tarnier, Pierre Budin, and others; and how French society of thefin de siecle understood and received these incubators. He then discusses the nuances of technology transfer and transformation as the incubator made its way across the Atlantic, some ten to twenty years after its invention and acceptance in France. Baker spends considerable(More)
Human beings have benefited from vaccines for more than two centuries. Yet the pathway to effective vaccines has been neither neat nor direct. This paper explores the history of vaccines and immunization, beginning with Edward Jenner's creation of the world's first vaccine for smallpox in the 1790s. We then demonstrate that many of the issues salient in(More)
CONTEXT A critical question in pandemic influenza planning is the role nonpharmaceutical interventions might play in delaying the temporal effects of a pandemic, reducing the overall and peak attack rate, and reducing the number of cumulative deaths. Such measures could potentially provide valuable time for pandemic-strain vaccine and antiviral medication(More)
  • H Markel
  • 1992
As the field of human genetics successfully continues to unravel the secrets of an individual's genetic makeup, the social processes of stigmatization and ostracism of those with "undesirable" traits have the potential to increase. An historical example that may shed light on the problems of applying genetic technology to disease prevention is the(More)
In June 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a request for applications to identify, improve, and evaluate the effectiveness of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs)-strategies other than vaccines and antiviral medications-to mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza within communities and across international borders(More)
Vaccine adverse events (VAEs) are adverse bodily changes occurring after vaccination. Understanding the adverse event (AE) profiles is a crucial step to identify serious AEs. Two different types of seasonal influenza vaccines have been used on the market: trivalent (killed) inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) and trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine(More)
The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 killed approximately 50 million people. The unusually severe morbidity and mortality associated with the pandemic spurred physicians and scientists to isolate the etiologic agent, but the virus was not isolated in 1918. In 1996, it became possible to recover and sequence highly degraded fragments of influenza viral RNA(More)