Howard M. Cooper

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Carcinoma cells express a novel integrin involved in cell adhesion to vitronectin, but not to fibrinogen or von Willebrand factor, whereas melanoma and endothelial cells express a vitronectin receptor (alpha v beta 3) that promotes cell attachment to all of these matrix components. The integrin responsible for this adhesive phenotype of carcinoma cells is(More)
The integrin alpha 6 beta 4 is a heterodimer predominantly expressed by epithelia. While no definite receptor function has yet been assigned to it, this integrin may mediate adhesive and/or migratory functions of epithelial cells. We have determined the complete primary structure of both the alpha 6 and beta 4 subunits from cDNA clones isolated from(More)
In addition to rods and cones, the human retina contains light-sensitive ganglion cells that express melanopsin, a photopigment with signal transduction mechanisms similar to that of invertebrate rhabdomeric photopigments (IRP). Like fly rhodopsins, melanopsin acts as a dual-state photosensitive flip-flop in which light drives both phototransduction(More)
Retinal projections and visual thalamo-cortical connections were studied in the subterranean mole rat, belonging to the superspecies Spalax ehrenbergi, by anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques. Quantitative image analysis was used to estimate the relative density and distribution of retinal input to different primary visual nuclei. The visual system(More)
The availability of naturally occurring and transgenic retinal mutants has made the mouse an attractive experimental model to address questions regarding photoentrainment of circadian rhythms. However, very little is known about the retinal cells and the retinal projections to the nuclei of the murine circadian timing system. Furthermore, the effect of(More)
Light is a potent stimulus for regulating circadian, hormonal, and behavioral systems. In addition, light therapy is effective for certain affective disorders, sleep problems, and circadian rhythm disruption. These biological and behavioral effects of light are influenced by a distinct photoreceptor in the eye, melanopsin-containing intrinsically(More)
Many epithelial cells appear to use cell-substratum adhesion complexes known as hemidesmosomes as the main means of anchorage to the connective tissue. Initially recognized as distinctive electron-dense images, hemidesmosomes are still poorly understood at the biochemical level. The regulation and mode of their assembly, which is disrupted in certain(More)
Glaucoma is a widespread ocular disease and major cause of blindness characterized by progressive, irreversible damage of the optic nerve. Although the degenerative loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and visual deficits associated with glaucoma have been extensively studied, we hypothesize that glaucoma will also lead to alteration of the circadian timing(More)
In mammals, nonvisual responses to light have been shown to involve intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) that express melanopsin and that are modulated by input from both rods and cones. Recent in vitro evidence suggests that melanopsin possesses dual photosensory and photoisomerase functions, previously thought to be a unique feature(More)
Nonvisual responses to light, such as photic entrainment of the circadian clock, involve intrinsically light-sensitive melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells as well as rod and cone photoreceptors. However, previous studies have been unable to demonstrate a specific contribution of cones in the photic control of circadian responses to light. Using a mouse(More)