Howard L. Weiner

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On activation, T cells undergo distinct developmental pathways, attaining specialized properties and effector functions. T-helper (T(H)) cells are traditionally thought to differentiate into T(H)1 and T(H)2 cell subsets. T(H)1 cells are necessary to clear intracellular pathogens and T(H)2 cells are important for clearing extracellular organisms. Recently, a(More)
Regulatory T cells (T(reg)) expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 control the autoreactive components of the immune system. The development of T(reg) cells is reciprocally related to that of pro-inflammatory T cells producing interleukin-17 (T(H)17). Although T(reg) cell dysfunction and/or T(H)17 cell dysregulation are thought to contribute to the(More)
Microglia are myeloid cells of the CNS that participate both in normal CNS function and in disease. We investigated the molecular signature of microglia and identified 239 genes and 8 microRNAs that were uniquely or highly expressed in microglia versus myeloid and other immune cells. Of the 239 genes, 106 were enriched in microglia as compared with(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered to be an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that in many patients first presents clinically as optic neuritis. The relationship of optic neuritis to MS is not well understood. We have generated novel T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice specific for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG).(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a cell-mediated autoimmune disease that serves as an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Oral administration of myelin basic protein (MBP) suppresses EAE by inducing peripheral tolerance. T cell clones were isolated from the mesenteric lymph nodes of SJL mice that had been orally tolerized to MBP. These(More)
BACKGROUND The anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab reduces disease activity in previously untreated patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of alemtuzumab compared with interferon beta 1a in patients who have relapsed despite first-line treatment. METHODS In our 2 year, rater-masked, randomised(More)
BACKGROUND The anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab reduced disease activity in a phase 2 trial of previously untreated patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of first-line alemtuzumab compared with interferon beta 1a in a phase 3 trial. METHODS In our 2 year, rater-masked, randomised controlled(More)
MicroRNAs are a family of regulatory molecules involved in many physiological processes, including differentiation and activation of cells of the immune system. We found that brain-specific miR-124 is expressed in microglia but not in peripheral monocytes or macrophages. When overexpressed in macrophages, miR-124 directly inhibited the transcription factor(More)
Monocyte recruitment to the central nervous system (CNS) is a necessary step in the development of pathologic inflammatory lesions in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, a potent agonist for directed monocyte migration, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of(More)
Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 are key in maintaining the balance of immune homeostasis. However, distinct induced T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells that lack Foxp3 expression also regulate T cell function, mainly by producing the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10). However, the factors required for(More)