Howard J Mason

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OBJECTIVES To determine the kinetics of elimination of urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites after oral and dermally applied doses of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos to human volunteers and to determine whether these doses affected plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity. METHOD Five volunteers ingested 1 mg (2852 nmol) of chlorpyrifos.(More)
The role of specific cytochrome P450 isoforms in catalysing the oxidative biotransformation of the organophosphorothioate pesticides parathion, chlorpyrifos and diazinon into structures that inhibit cholinesterase has been investigated in human liver microsomes using chemical inhibitors. Pesticides were incubated with human liver microsomes and production(More)
Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to diazinon is possible by the determination of blood cholinesterase activity and by the measurement of metabolites in urine. However, there is little data to aid in the interpretation of results. This study gave oral (11 microg kg(-1) (36 nmol kg(-1)) body weight) and occluded dermal (100 mg (329 micromol))(More)
Organophosphates (OPs) are readily absorbed through the skin and biological monitoring is an essential component of any comprehensive assessment of exposure. This paper presents a summary of our experience in a wide range of occupational studies. Additionally, we have conducted studies of non-occupational exposure and human volunteer studies looking at the(More)
BACKGROUND Biological monitoring (BM) aids exposure assessment but where this is based on incomplete collections of single urine voiding measurement of creatinine is often used to adjust analyte concentrations for the effects of fluid balance. AIMS To provide reference data on creatinine concentrations in urine samples from a population of UK workers. (More)
Two groups of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus of > 10 years duration and either persistent normoalbuminuria (group 1, n = 49; albumin excretion < 30 mg/day) or microalbuminuria (group 2, n = 33; albumin excretion 30-300 mg/day) were investigated for evidence of free oxygen radical activity (erythrocytic superoxide dismutase and glutathione(More)
The in vitro rates of aging and spontaneous reactivation of human plasma cholinesterase (ChE) after inhibition by several organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) have been studied. After inhibition by OP the enzyme can undergo two simultaneous reactions; spontaneous reactivation to the active enzyme and 'aging' to an irreversibly inhibited form of the enzyme. The(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To carry out an environmental and biological monitoring study in two UK hospital pharmacy units involved in the preparation of antineoplastic drugs. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS The two units studied used isolators for drug preparation. One used isolators operating at positive pressure relative to external atmospheric pressure, whereas the(More)
We recently carried out a study of two UK hospital pharmacy units preparing cytotoxic drugs using isolators that showed low level contamination on floor surfaces and disposable gloves worn by staff. It has been suggested that this level of contamination may be related to some level of contamination on the drug vials as delivered from manufacturers rather(More)
We used urinary assays as a non-invasive method to examine corticosterone levels in two outbred strains of male laboratory mice (BKW and CD-1). Measures were taken before and after 2 weeks of pair housing, to examine the effects of social stress. We found that CD-1 mice had significantly higher corticosterone levels compared to BKW mice both before and(More)