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BACKGROUND There is much controversy about the use of computed tomography (CT) for patients with minor head injury. We aimed to develop a highly sensitive clinical decision rule for use of CT in patients with minor head injuries. METHODS We carried out this prospective cohort study in the emergency departments of ten large Canadian hospitals and included(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify high risk clinical characteristics for subarachnoid haemorrhage in neurologically intact patients with headache. DESIGN Multicentre prospective cohort study over five years. SETTING Six university affiliated tertiary care teaching hospitals in Canada. Data collected from November 2000 until November 2005. PARTICIPANTS(More)
CONTEXT High levels of variation and inefficiency exist in current clinical practice regarding use of cervical spine (C-spine) radiography in alert and stable trauma patients. OBJECTIVE To derive a clinical decision rule that is highly sensitive for detecting acute C-spine injury and will allow emergency department (ED) physicians to be more selective in(More)
BACKGROUND The Canadian C-Spine (cervical-spine) Rule (CCR) and the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) Low-Risk Criteria (NLC) are decision rules to guide the use of cervical-spine radiography in patients with trauma. It is unclear how the two decision rules compare in terms of clinical performance. METHODS We conducted a(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure the sensitivity of modern third generation computed tomography in emergency patients being evaluated for possible subarachnoid haemorrhage, especially when carried out within six hours of headache onset. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING 11 tertiary care emergency departments across Canada, 2000-9. PARTICIPANTS(More)
Transient forebrain ischemia was induced in rats whose brain temperature was 31, 33, 35, 38, or 40 degrees C. The development of regional injury was followed using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, with the ultimate extent of neuronal injury quantified histopathologically. Animals in the hypothermic groups showed minimal changes in MR images over 4 days;(More)
The potent and selective AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX was tested for cytoprotective properties in an adult rat model of transient focal neocortical ischemia. Nineteen spontaneously hypertensive rats sustained 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by 22 h of recirculation. Ninety minutes following the onset of ischemia, at the time of, and 30(More)
Protection of CNS white matter tracts in brain and spinal cord is essential for maximizing clinical recovery from disorders such as stroke or spinal cord injury. Central myelinated axons are damaged by anoxia/ischemia in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Leakage of Na+ into the axoplasm through Na+ channels causes Ca2+ overload mainly by reverse Na(+)-Ca2+(More)
The effects of caffeine on ischemic neuronal injury were determined in rats subjected to forebrain ischemia induced by bilateral carotid occlusion and controlled hypotension (50 mmHg for 10 min). High resolution (100 microns) multi-slice, multi-echo magnetic resonance images were obtained daily for three consecutive days post-operatively in sham-operated(More)
The effects of mannitol, nimodipine, and indomethacin on ischemic neuronal injury were examined in 45 rats divided equally into nine groups subjected to 10 minutes of forebrain ischemia. Of two control groups, one received maintenance fluids while the other received a normal saline bolus. In the remaining seven groups, mannitol, nimodipine, and indomethacin(More)