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Traditional descriptions of the basal forebrain cholinergic projection system to the cortex have focused on neuromodulatory influences, that is, mechanisms that modulate cortical information processing but are not necessary for mediating discrete behavioral responses and cognitive operations. This review summarises and conceptualises the evidence in support(More)
Research on the regulation and function of ascending noradrenergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic systems has focused on the organization and function of individual systems. In contrast, evidence describing co-activation and interactions between multiple neuromodulatory systems has remained scarce. However, commonalities in the anatomical(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals that can synchronize or entrain to environmental cues. Although light exerts powerful influences on SCN output, other non-photic stimuli can modulate the SCN as well. We recently demonstrated that daily performance of a cognitive task requiring sustained periods of attentional(More)
Circadian rhythms influence a variety of physiological and behavioral processes; however, little is known about how circadian rhythms interact with the organisms' ability to acquire and retain information about their environment. These experiments tested whether rats trained outside their endogenous active period demonstrate the same rate of acquisition,(More)
The human connectome will provide a detailed mapping of the brain's connectivity, with fundamental insights for health and disease. However, further understanding of brain function and dysfunction will require an integrated framework that links brain connectivity with brain dynamics, as well as the biological details that relate this connectivity more(More)
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep enhances hippocampus-dependent associative memory, but REM deprivation has little impact on striatum-dependent procedural learning. Antidepressant medications are known to inhibit REM sleep, but it is not well understood if antidepressant treatments impact learning and memory. We explored antidepressant REM suppression effects(More)
Modern theories of learned vocal behaviours, such as human speech and singing in songbirds, posit that acoustic communication signals are reproduced from memory, using auditory feedback. The nature of these memories, however, is unclear. Here we propose and test a model for how complex song structure can emerge from sparse sequence information acquired(More)
Animals and humans are able to predict and synchronize their daily activity to signals present in their environments. Environmental cues are most often associated with signaling the beginning or the end of a daily activity cycle, but they can also be used to time the presentation or availability of scarce resources. If the signal occurs consistently,(More)
The cortical cholinergic input system has been described as a neuromodulator system that influences broadly defined behavioral and brain states. The discovery of phasic, trial-based increases in extracellular choline (transients), resulting from the hydrolysis of newly released acetylcholine (ACh), in the cortex of animals reporting the presence of cues(More)
In addition to the neuromodulatory role of cholinergic systems, brief, temporally discrete cholinergic release events, or "transients", have been associated with the detection of cues in attention tasks. Here we review four main findings about cholinergic transients during cognitive processing. Cholinergic transients are: (1) associated with the detection(More)