Howard D Engers

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A comparative study on the prevalence and pathology of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on 5,424 cattle (2,578 zebus, 1,921 crosses, and 925 Holsteins), which were kept on pasture in the central highlands of Ethiopia, using a comparative intradermal tuberculin test, postmortem examination, and bacteriology. The overall prevalence of bovine TB was(More)
The pathogenic importance of L3T4+ T cells in the development of murine cerebral malaria was demonstrated by the following observations. First, in vivo administration of an anti-L3T4 monoclonal antibody protected Plasmodium berghei-infected CBA mice from the development of neurologic symptoms and acute death. In contrast, injection with an MAb directed(More)
BACKGROUND Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a debilitating disease of cattle. Ethiopia has one of the largest cattle populations in the world, with an economy highly dependent on its livestock. Furthermore, Ethiopia has one of the highest incidence rates of human extrapulmonary TB in the world, a clinical presentation that is(More)
Anopheles arabiensis is the major vector of malaria in Ethiopia. Malaria vector control in Ethiopia is based on selective indoor residual spraying using DDT, distribution of long lasting insecticide treated nets and environmental management of larval breeding habitats. DDT and pyrethroid insecticides are neurotoxins and have a similar mode of action on the(More)
Plasmodium vivax accounts for about 40% of all malaria infection in Ethiopia. Chloroquine (CQ) is the first line treatment for confirmed P. vivax malaria in the country. The first report of CQ treatment failure in P. vivax was from Debre Zeit, which suggested the presence of chloroquine resistance. An in vivo drug efficacy study was conducted in Debre Zeit(More)
INTRODUCTION S. Concord in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of febrile and diarrhoeic illness in Ethiopian children focussing on Salmonella. METHODOLOGY Paediatric patients (n = 1,225) presenting with diarrhoea or fever from the paediatric outpatient department of Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa (n =(More)
The only vaccine available against tuberculosis (TB), BCG, so effective in experimental animal models, has been under scrutiny for a long time owing to its variable efficacy against pulmonary tuberculosis in adults. In this study, we evaluated whether anti-helminthic therapy prior to BCG vaccination could increase the immunogenicity of BCG vaccination in(More)
Bovine tuberculosis is a major economic problem and a potential public health risk. Improved diagnostics like the gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) test with ESAT6 and/or CFP10 could contribute to the control program. We assessed IFN-gamma responses in zebu (Ethiopian Arsi breed) and Holstein cattle kept indoors or in a pasture to tuberculin purified protein(More)
Setting priorities for health research is a difficult task, especially for the neglected diseases of the poor. A new approach to priority setting for tropical diseases research has been adopted by the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (known as the TDR). Priorities are defined on the basis of a(More)
Three novel diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), namely FD-DAT, rK39 dipstick and KATEX, were evaluated under field conditions using 101 clinical cases suspected of having VL enrolled in a trial either by active (63 patients) or passive (38 patients) surveillance. VL was confirmed in 49 patients: 35 by both aspirate smear microscopy and NNN(More)