Howard D. Chilcoat

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BACKGROUND The study estimates the relative importance of specific types of traumas experienced in the community in terms of their prevalence and risk of leading to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS A representative sample of 2181 persons in the Detroit area aged 18 to 45 years were interviewed by telephone to assess the lifetime history of(More)
Twin studies indicate that additive genetic effects explain most of the variance in nicotine dependence (ND), a construct emphasizing habitual heavy smoking despite adverse consequences, tolerance and withdrawal. To detect ND alleles, we assessed cigarettes per day (CPD) regularly smoked, in two European populations via whole genome association techniques.(More)
BACKGROUND We examine potential sources of the sex differences in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the community. METHODS Data were obtained from a representative sample of 2181 persons aged 18-45 years in the Detroit primary metropolitan statistical area, which is a six-county area containing more than four million residents. A random digit(More)
OBJECTIVE With the exception of a few reports of higher rates of childhood trauma in Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known about the influence of previous exposure to trauma on the PTSD effects of subsequent trauma. The authors examine interrelated questions about the effects of previous exposure to trauma. METHOD A(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between major depression and smoking. This prospective study examines the role of depression in smoking progression and cessation, and the role of smoking in first-onset major depression. METHODS Data are from a 5-year longitudinal epidemiologic study of 1007 young adults. Incidence and odds(More)
The purpose of this report was to estimate the association between children's trouble sleeping and anxiety/depression at ages 6 and 11, cross-sectionally and prospectively. Data come from a study of the psychiatric sequelae of low birth weight (LBW: <2500 g). LBW and normal birth weight children were randomly selected from the 1983-1985 newborn lists of an(More)
Multiple family-level childhood stressors are common and are correlated. It is unknown if clusters of commonly co-occurring stressors are identifiable. The study was designed to explore family-level stressor clustering in the general population, to estimate the prevalence of exposure classes, and to examine the correlation of sociodemographic(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether mothers' psychiatric history biases reports of their children's behavior problems, mothers' and teachers' reports of children's behavior problems were compared using a recently developed statistical approach. METHOD Child Behavior Checklists and Teacher's Report Forms were completed by mothers and teachers, respectively,(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether parental supervision and monitoring in middle childhood might have a sustained impact on risk of drug use later in childhood and adolescence. METHOD An epidemiological sample of 926 urban-dwelling youths were individually interviewed annually, beginning in 1989 when the children were 8 to 10 years old, continuing through 1992.(More)
The hypothesis tested was that, in schizophrenia, corpus callosum size would be reduced, particularly in the region responsible for communication between both temporal lobes. This is supported by knowledge of: (a) anatomical homotopicity and functional specialization of fibres within the corpus callosum; (b) evidence linking structural and functional(More)