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BACKGROUND The study estimates the relative importance of specific types of traumas experienced in the community in terms of their prevalence and risk of leading to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS A representative sample of 2181 persons in the Detroit area aged 18 to 45 years were interviewed by telephone to assess the lifetime history of(More)
OBJECTIVE With the exception of a few reports of higher rates of childhood trauma in Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known about the influence of previous exposure to trauma on the PTSD effects of subsequent trauma. The authors examine interrelated questions about the effects of previous exposure to trauma. METHOD A(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between major depression and smoking. This prospective study examines the role of depression in smoking progression and cessation, and the role of smoking in first-onset major depression. METHODS Data are from a 5-year longitudinal epidemiologic study of 1007 young adults. Incidence and odds(More)
BACKGROUND We examine potential sources of the sex differences in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the community. METHODS Data were obtained from a representative sample of 2181 persons aged 18-45 years in the Detroit primary metropolitan statistical area, which is a six-county area containing more than four million residents. A random digit(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic epidemiology data suggest that younger age of onset is associated with family history (FH) of depression. The present study tested whether the presence of FH for depression or anxiety in first-degree relatives determines younger age of onset for depression. METHOD A sample of 1022 cases with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) was(More)
Twin studies indicate that additive genetic effects explain most of the variance in nicotine dependence (ND), a construct emphasizing habitual heavy smoking despite adverse consequences, tolerance and withdrawal. To detect ND alleles, we assessed cigarettes per day (CPD) regularly smoked, in two European populations via whole genome association techniques.(More)
Using data gathered prospectively, the authors examined whether transitions in two major adult social roles, marriage and parenthood, influence the risk of developing (1) DSM-III-R alcohol disorder and (2) symptoms of alcohol disorder. Additionally, the potential impact of these transitions on persistence of alcohol disorder was examined. In the study,(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether mothers' psychiatric history biases reports of their children's behavior problems, mothers' and teachers' reports of children's behavior problems were compared using a recently developed statistical approach. METHOD Child Behavior Checklists and Teacher's Report Forms were completed by mothers and teachers, respectively,(More)
The hypothesis tested was that, in schizophrenia, corpus callosum size would be reduced, particularly in the region responsible for communication between both temporal lobes. This is supported by knowledge of: (a) anatomical homotopicity and functional specialization of fibres within the corpus callosum; (b) evidence linking structural and functional(More)
An epidemiologic study of urban-dwelling children aged 8-10 years in Baltimore, Maryland, was undertaken to test the hypothesis that close monitoring and supervision by parents might signal a reduced risk of drug use in the elementary school years. Drug use, monitoring by parents, peer drug use, and other suspected risk factors for early drug use were first(More)