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BACKGROUND The study estimates the relative importance of specific types of traumas experienced in the community in terms of their prevalence and risk of leading to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS A representative sample of 2181 persons in the Detroit area aged 18 to 45 years were interviewed by telephone to assess the lifetime history of(More)
OBJECTIVE With the exception of a few reports of higher rates of childhood trauma in Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known about the influence of previous exposure to trauma on the PTSD effects of subsequent trauma. The authors examine interrelated questions about the effects of previous exposure to trauma. METHOD A(More)
BACKGROUND We examined the relationship between low birth weight (LBW) and psychiatric problems at age 11 years. METHODS Random samples of 6-year-old LBW and normal birth weight (NBW) children from two socioeconomically disparate communities were identified, traced, and assessed. We targeted the 1983-1985 cohort of newborns who reached age 6 in 1990-1992,(More)
The hypothesis tested was that, in schizophrenia, corpus callosum size would be reduced, particularly in the region responsible for communication between both temporal lobes. This is supported by knowledge of: (a) anatomical homotopicity and functional specialization of fibres within the corpus callosum; (b) evidence linking structural and functional(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic epidemiology data suggest that younger age of onset is associated with family history (FH) of depression. The present study tested whether the presence of FH for depression or anxiety in first-degree relatives determines younger age of onset for depression. METHOD A sample of 1022 cases with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) was(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the utility of a teacher-rating instrument (Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised [TOCA-R]) of aggressive behavior during elementary school years in identifying girls at risk of later criminal court violence. METHOD A community epidemiological sample of 845 urban public school girls was rated at six time points during(More)
The objective of this study is to determine whether persons with a history of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk for somatization symptoms. Using the NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule, 1007 21-30-year-old members of a large health maintenance organization in south-east Michigan were interviewed initially in 1989, with follow-up(More)
Using prospective data from a community-based sample, the authors tested (a) whether low birth weight (LBW) was a vulnerability marker for children's early drug use and (b) whether the antecedents and sequelae of LBW may act as mediators or confounders in the pathway to early drug use. A total of 823 children and their mothers--473 LBW (<2,500 g) and 350(More)
BACKGROUND We examine potential sources of the sex differences in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the community. METHODS Data were obtained from a representative sample of 2181 persons aged 18-45 years in the Detroit primary metropolitan statistical area, which is a six-county area containing more than four million residents. A random digit(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between major depression and smoking. This prospective study examines the role of depression in smoking progression and cessation, and the role of smoking in first-onset major depression. METHODS Data are from a 5-year longitudinal epidemiologic study of 1007 young adults. Incidence and odds(More)