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There are two hypotheses explaining a fulminant outcome after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, both of which may be applicable at the same time: (i) basal core promoter (BCP) mutations increase viral replication, allowing rapid spread of the virus through the liver, and (ii) pre-core (pre-C) mutations abrogating hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) synthesis(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure changes in psychometric state, neural activation, brain volume (BV), and cerebral metabolite concentrations during treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS As proof of principle, 22 patients with well-compensated, biopsy-proven cirrhosis of differing etiology and previous minimal hepatic encephalopathy were treated with(More)
Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190)). We used functional genomic approaches including(More)
Alcohol dependence is a common, complex and debilitating disorder with genetic and environmental influences. Here we show that alcohol consumption increases following mutations to the γ-aminobutyric acidA receptor (GABAAR) β1 subunit gene (Gabrb1). Using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis on an alcohol-averse background (F1 BALB/cAnN x C3H/HeH), we develop a(More)
Hepatic encephalopathy is the most obvious neurological consequence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. There are also case reports of HCV-associated cerebral vasculitis. This review is concerned with the possibility of an effect of HCV on cerebral dysfunction, occurring at an early stage of chronic infection, prior to the development of cirrhosis(More)
PURPOSE To prospectively compare transit times of Levovist and SonoVue in healthy volunteers and patients with biopsy-proved hepatitis C-related liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Forty patients and 25 healthy volunteers were examined. Subjects fasted, a bolus of SonoVue (0.6 mL)(More)
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