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Cortical plasticity is thought to occur following continuous barrage of nociceptive afferent signals to the brain. Hence, chronic pain is presumed to induce anatomical and physiological changes in the brain over time. Inherent factors, some pre-dating the onset of chronic pain, may also contribute to brain abnormalities present in patients. In this study we(More)
We present bacterial biogeography as sampled from the human gastrointestinal tract of four healthy subjects. This study generated >32 million paired-end sequences of bacterial 16S rRNA genes (V3 region) representing >95,000 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% similarity clusters), with >99% Good's coverage for all samples. The highest OTU richness(More)
Widespread brain gray matter (GM) atrophy is a normal part of the aging process. However, recent studies indicate that age-related GM changes are not uniform across the brain and may vary according to health status. Therefore the aims of this study were to determine whether chronic pain in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is associated with abnormal GM(More)
Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a prevalent chronic pain disorder that remains poorly understood. Recent imaging studies reported functional and gray matter abnormalities in brain areas implicated in sensorimotor, modulatory, and cognitive function in TMD, but it is not known whether there are white matter (WM) abnormalities along the trigeminal nerve(More)
Patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) perform poorly in neuropsychological tests of cognitive function. These deficits might be related to dysfunction in brain networks that support pain and cognition, due to the impact of chronic pain and its related emotional processes on cognitive ability. We therefore tested whether patients with TMD perform(More)
This study compared myofascial pain of the masticatory muscles to fibromyalgia. Study data show that, in both myofascial pain and fibromyalgia patients, facial pain intensity and its daily pattern and effect on quality of life are very similar. This indicates that fibromyalgia should be included in the differential diagnosis for myofascial pain of the(More)
Rumination is a form of thought characterized by repetitive focus on discomforting emotions or stimuli. In chronic pain disorders, rumination can impede treatment efficacy. The brain mechanisms underlying rumination about chronic pain are not understood. Interestingly, a link between rumination and functional connectivity (FC) of the brain's default mode(More)
In this paper, we shall review several chronic orofacial pain conditions with emphasis on those that are essentially refractory to treatment. We shall present a review of current and past literature that describes the various pain phenomena as well as their underlying central mechanisms. New data concerning refractory pain will be used to underscore the(More)
PURPOSE This study aimed to assess the use of neuropsychologic tests as a tool to differentiate, or not, between a nonresponding chronic pain condition of nonmuscular origin, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (n = 20), versus 2 pain conditions of muscular origin, responding (n = 36) and nonresponding (n = 24) temporomandibular disorders. MATERIALS AND(More)
OBJECTIVES Treatment of oral mucositis (OM) is challenging. In order to develop and test useful treatment approaches, the development of reliable, reproducible and simpler methods than are currently available for assessment of OM is important. A Patient-Reported Oral Mucositis Symptom (PROMS) scale was assessed in patients with head and neck cancer to(More)