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The worldwide dissemination of infectious agents has created a demand for simple diagnostic tests. Urine-based testing makes use of non-invasive collection of specimens, and there is no need for expensive facilities and equipment, or for highly trained personnel. As urine antibodies retain activity under normal conditions of transport and storage, such(More)
Retroviral diagnostics have become standard in human laboratory medicine. While current emphasis is placed on the human exogenous viruses (human immunodeficiency virus and human T-cell leukemia virus), evidence implicating human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in various human disease entities continues to mount. Literature on the occurrence of HERVs in(More)
Circulating nucleic acids (CNA) isolated from serum or plasma are increasingly recognized as biomarkers for cancers. Recently developed next generation sequencing provides high numbers of DNA sequences to detect the trace amounts of unique serum biomarkers associated with breast carcinoma. Serum CNA of 38 women with ductal carcinoma was extracted and(More)
Using recently available mass sequencing and assembly technologies, we have been able to identify and quantify unique cell-free DNA motifs in the blood of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The most common MS clinical syndrome, relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), is accompanied by a unique fingerprint of both inter- and intragenic cell-free circulating(More)
Oligonucleotide sequences containing unmethylated cytidine phosphate guanosine (CpG) motifs are known to have significant immunostimulatory properties. Because of these immunostimulatory effects, unmethylated CpG oligonucleotides are thought to act as 'danger signals' that produce a favorable immune response by alerting the host to the presence of invading(More)
Clinical trial results from 11,344 paired urine and serum samples revealed 1,181 HIV-1-positive individuals confirmed by western blot (WB). There were 25 discrepant samples: 10 were urine enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and WB positive, serum non-reactive and serum WB negative or indeterminate, and 15 were serum EIA and WB positive, urine EIA non-reactive or urine(More)
BACKGROUND Circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) have been shown to have diagnostic utility in human diseases. The aim of this study was to sequence and organize CNAs to document typical profiles of circulating DNA in apparently healthy individuals. METHODS Serum DNA from 51 apparently healthy humans was extracted, amplified, sequenced via pyrosequencing (454(More)
The occurrence of RNA (RT-PCR amplicons) in the plasma of 70 patients was quantified: 65 patients with multiple myeloma (MM), 3 with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM), 2 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and 50 from healthy controls. A 713nt amplicon occurred in 16/18 MM patients in relapse, 5/8 untreated patients, 2,3 WM(More)
BACKGROUND Noninvasive methodologies provide alternatives to diagnostic blood tests and have high patient acceptance, increased safety, and reduced costs. Such tests may supplement or replace blood diagnostic assays currently in use. METHODS Using a licensed urine-based test for antibody to HIV-1, we performed 25 991 HIV-1 urine antibody enzyme(More)