Howard B. Urnovitz

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Retroviral diagnostics have become standard in human laboratory medicine. While current emphasis is placed on the human exogenous viruses (human immunodeficiency virus and human T-cell leukemia virus), evidence implicating human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in various human disease entities continues to mount. Literature on the occurrence of HERVs in(More)
Circulating nucleic acids (CNA) isolated from serum or plasma are increasingly recognized as biomarkers for cancers. Recently developed next generation sequencing provides high numbers of DNA sequences to detect the trace amounts of unique serum biomarkers associated with breast carcinoma. Serum CNA of 38 women with ductal carcinoma was extracted and(More)
BACKGROUND Circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) have been shown to have diagnostic utility in human diseases. The aim of this study was to sequence and organize CNAs to document typical profiles of circulating DNA in apparently healthy individuals. METHODS Serum DNA from 51 apparently healthy humans was extracted, amplified, sequenced via pyrosequencing (454(More)
Mammary tumors are the most frequent cancers in female dogs exhibiting a variety of histopathological differences. There is lack of knowledge about the genomes of these common dog tumors. Five tumors of three different histological subtypes were evaluated. Massive parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed in comparison to the respective somatic genome of each(More)
BACKGROUND Genomic instability resulting in copy number variation is a hallmark of malignant transformation and may be identified through massive parallel sequencing. Tumor-specific cell free DNA (cfDNA) present in serum and plasma provides a real-time, easily accessible surrogate. METHODS DNA was extracted from serum of 204 patients with prostate cancer(More)
BACKGROUND Noninvasive methodologies provide alternatives to diagnostic blood tests and have high patient acceptance, increased safety, and reduced costs. Such tests may supplement or replace blood diagnostic assays currently in use. METHODS Using a licensed urine-based test for antibody to HIV-1, we performed 25 991 HIV-1 urine antibody enzyme(More)
Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was used for polyribonucleotide assays with sera from deployed Persian Gulf War veterans with the Gulf War Syndrome and a cohort of nonmilitary controls. Sera from veterans contained polyribonucleotides (amplicons) that were obtained by RT-PCR and that ranged in size from 200 to ca. 2,000 bp. Sera from controls did not(More)
A possible role for human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) in the pathogenesis of MS was investigated by analyzing HERV peptides-stimulated proliferation and cytokine production in MS patients with acute (AMS) or stable (SMS) disease. HERV peptides specific-proliferation and type 1 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was observed in AMS(More)
To gain insight into the disease progression of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), we searched for disease-specific patterns in circulating nucleic acids (CNA) in elk and cattle. In a 25-month time-course experiment, CNAs were isolated from blood samples of 24 elk (Cervus elaphus) orally challenged with chronic wasting disease (CWD) infectious(More)
Previously, Multimer Detection System (MDS) detected scrapie infected lambs of 8 mo age at pre-clinical stage in comparison with the normal controls. Above lamb were born from scrapie infected parent sheep (VRQ/VRQ). Here, MDS was challenged twice blindly with scrapie sheep blood samples from pre-clinical stages. These sheep showed no symptoms and they died(More)