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MOTIVATION One of the key limitations for proteomic studies using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) is the lack of rapid, robust and reproducible methods for detecting, matching and quantifying protein spots. The most commonly used approaches involve first detecting spots and drawing spot boundaries on individual gels, then matching spots across gels(More)
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 has been shown to attenuate tolerance development in rats. In this study, we show that MK-801 inhibits tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of morphine, as assessed by the tail-flick test, in spinalized rats. These results suggest that NMDA receptor antagonists inhibit opiate tolerance at spinal(More)
BACKGROUND Nociceptive sensitization is a tissue damage response whereby sensory neurons near damaged tissue enhance their responsiveness to external stimuli. This sensitization manifests as allodynia (aversive withdrawal to previously nonnoxious stimuli) and/or hyperalgesia (exaggerated responsiveness to noxious stimuli). Although some factors mediating(More)
OBJECTIVE Opioids have relieved more human suffering than any other medication, but their use is still fraught with significant concerns of misuse, abuse, and addiction. This theoretical article explores the hypothesis that opioid misuse in the context of pain management produces a hypersensitivity to emotional distress, termed hyperkatifeia. RESULTS In(More)
BACKGROUND The molecular mechanisms underlying both beneficial and undesirable opioid actions are poorly understood. Recently, the three currently known mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades (extracellular signal-related kinase [ERK], stress-activated protein kinase, and p38 kinase) were shown to play important roles in(More)
Many software packages have been developed to process and analyze 2-D gel images. Some programs have been touted as automated, high-throughput solutions. We tested five commercially available programs using 18 replicate gels of a rat brain protein extract. We determined computer processing time, approximate spot editing time, time required to correct spot(More)
The periaqueductal gray (PAG) and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) are important brain stem pain modulating regions. Recent evidence suggests that kappa opioids antagonize the effects of mu opioids in the RVM. However, the anatomical relationship between mu and kappa opioid receptors in PAG and RVM is not well characterized. This study examined(More)
Image data are increasingly encountered and are of growing importance in many areas of science. Much of these data are quantitative image data, which are characterized by intensities that represent some measurement of interest in the scanned images. The data typically consist of multiple images on the same domain and the goal of the research is to combine(More)