Howard A Young

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Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with a variety of clinical outcomes including gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The reasons for this variation are not clear, but the gastric physiological response is influenced by the severity and anatomical distribution of gastritis induced by H. pylori. Thus, individuals with gastritis predominantly(More)
Ebola virus (EBOV) infection causes a severe and fatal hemorrhagic disease that in many ways appears to be similar in humans and nonhuman primates; however, little is known about the development of EBOV hemorrhagic fever. In the present study, 21 cynomolgus monkeys were experimentally infected with EBOV and examined sequentially over a 6-day period to(More)
Although several CXC chemokines have been shown to induce angiogenesis and play roles in tumor growth, to date, no member of the CC chemokine family has been reported to play a direct role in angiogenesis. Here we report that the CC chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), induced chemotaxis of human endothelial cells at nanomolar concentrations.(More)
The contribution of chemokines toward angiogenesis is currently a focus of intensive investigation. Certain members of the CXC chemokine family can induce bovine capillary endothelial cell migration in vitro and corneal angiogenesis in vivo, and apparently act via binding to their receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. We used an RNAse protection assay that permitted(More)
Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a prominent manifestation of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection. Here, we report that tissue factor (TF) plays an important role in triggering the hemorrhagic complications that characterize EBOV infections. Analysis of samples obtained from 25 macaques showed increased levels of TF associated with lymphoid macrophages,(More)
Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is a pleiotropic lymphokine whose production is restricted to activated T cells and NK cells. Along with other cytokines, IFN-gamma gene expression is inhibited by the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A. We have previously identified an intronic enhancer region (C3) of the IFN-gamma gene that binds the NF-kappaB protein c-Rel and(More)
Ebola virus (EBOV) infection causes a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic disease in humans and nonhuman primates. Whether infection of endothelial cells is central to the pathogenesis of EBOV hemorrhagic fever (HF) remains unknown. To clarify the role of endothelial cells in EBOV HF, we examined tissues of 21 EBOV-infected cynomolgus monkeys throughout(More)
Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) is the major virulence factor of anthrax and reproduces most of the laboratory manifestations of the disease in animals. We studied LT toxicity in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. BALB/cJ mice became terminally ill earlier and with higher frequency than C57BL/6J mice. Timed histopathological analysis identified bone marrow,(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in the activation and regulation of B and T lymphocytes. Production of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) by macrophages has recently been described to result in inhibition of T cell proliferation through tryptophan degradation. Since DCs can be derived from monocytes, we sought to determine whether DCs could produce(More)
Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is critical for defense against pathogens, but the molecules that mediate its antimicrobial responses are largely unknown. IGTP is the prototype for a family of IFN-gamma-regulated genes that encode 48-kDa GTP-binding proteins that localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. We have generated IGTP-deficient mice and found that,(More)