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Extracellular application of glutamate (100 microM) increased the spontaneous secretion of acetylcholine, as well as the amplitude and decay time of miniature endplate potentials at developing neuromuscular synapses in Xenopus tadpoles. Kainate, quisqualate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (100 microM each) increased miniature endplate potential frequency by 26-,(More)
Autophagy is a degradation pathway for the turnover of dysfunctional organelles or aggregated proteins in cells. Extracellular accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide has been reported to be a major cause of Alzheimer disease (AD) and large numbers of autophagic vacuoles accumulate in the brain of AD patient. However, how autophagic process is involved in(More)
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is up-regulated in response to oxidative stress and catalyzes the degradation of pro-oxidant heme to carbon monoxide (CO), iron and bilirubin. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant and neuroprotectant. Neurotrophic factors of BDNF and GDNF also play important roles in survival and morphological differentiation of dopaminergic neurons. We(More)
The activation of autoreceptors is known to be important in the modulation of presynaptic transmitter secretion in peripheral and central neurons. Using whole-cell recordings made from the free growth cone of myocyte-contact motoneurons of Xenopus cell cultures, we have observed spontaneous nerve terminal currents (NTCs). These spontaneous NTCs are blocked(More)
Acetazolamide (AZ) is an carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, which has been used in the treatment of seizures, mountain sickness and glaucoma. Memory impairment by AZ has been reported in patient interviews; however, the related mechanism is unclear. We applied two fear conditioning paradigms, shuttle avoidance and passive avoidance, in both rats and mice to(More)
1. Glutamate receptors play important roles in synaptic plasticity and neural development. Here we report that, at the developing neuromuscular synapses in Xenopus cultures, the activation of presynaptic glutamate receptors at motor nerve terminals potentiates spontaneous acetylcholine (ACh) release. 2. Co-cultures of spinal neurons and myotomal muscle(More)
Injury to peripheral nerves may result in severe and intractable neuropathic pain. Many efforts have been focused on the elucidation of the mechanisms of neuropathic pain. It was found here that integrin plays an important role in the induction of neuropathic pain and treatment of disintegrin is able to attenuate neuropathic pain. The rats were induced(More)
1. Acetylcholine (ACh) is important as the transmitter responsible for neuromuscular transmission. Here we report the non-quantal release of ACh from embryonic myocytes. 2. Co-cultures of spinal neurons and myotomal muscle cells were prepared from 1-day-old Xenopus embryos. Single channel currents were recorded in the non-innervated myocytes. When the patch(More)
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a neuroprotective agent against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury. However, its crossing of blood-brain barrier is limited. Focused ultrasound (FUS) sonication with microbubbles (MBs) can effectively open blood-brain barrier to boost the vascular permeability. In this study, we investigated the effects of(More)
The lipoxygenase isoform of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is reported to be overexpressed in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue and involved in the progress of inflammatory arthritis. However, the detailed mechanism of how 5-lipoxygenase regulates the inflammatory response in arthritis synovial tissue is still unclear. The aim of this study was to(More)